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Ingredient Directory 

3-Day Moisture Reservoir: Saccharide Isomerate is a deeply moisturizing, plant-derived ingredient based on its unique composition which is similar to that of the carbohydrate complex found in human skin and on its unique ability to bind to skin cells. Provides deep hydration & creates a moisture reservoir that lasts for 72h. ECOCERT approved, NATRUE certification approved.  100% natural sugar-based humectant providing excellent moisturizing effects to the skin for extended periods of time (72 hours). Creates a moisture reservoir. Suitable for skin and hair care products.

 Allantoin- Allantoin is the final product of nitrogen metabolism in most mammals, except primates. It is also naturally found in plants, such as sugar beets or wheat sprouts [1]. Historically, allantoin has been extracted from the comfrey plant root and leaves, but due to wide use in pharmaceutical or cosmetics products it is now manufactured by chemical synthesis [2]. This agent is used in over 1300 cosmetic preparations, where it is added to final concentrations in the range of 0.0001 to 2.0 % [3]. During its 70-year history of use in cosmetics, allantoin has been incorporated in a wide range of clinical skin care products, used to treat wounds, ulcers, burns, dermatitis, psoriasis, impetigo, and acne [2]–[5]. It is described as antiphlogistic (reduces inflammation), antioxidant (reduces damage caused by free radicals, implicated in ageing and cancer) and keratolytic (potent against undesired formations of keratin, such as warts). It even induces cell proliferation, thus promoting tissue repair and even peripheral nerve regeneration [1], [2].

The primary area of allantoin use in skin care is wound treatment. Interestingly, the details of the mechanism by which it acts (including regulation of inflammatory reactions) have become known only recently [4]. In spite of that, pharmacological preparations containing allantoin were proven to be effective much earlier. For example, a study from 1994 found that treating thoracic surgery scars with allantoin-containing mixture improved their appearance and reduced width. Scar development was judged as good or very good in more than 90 % of patients receiving this treatment [6]. The same mixture can also be used for scar prevention. Such early application can provide even better results, among them decrease in painfulness, improved color and almost double reduction in size [7]. Finally, it was found that incidence of scars after tattoo removal by laser was much lower in a group that received allantoin-based treatment, compared to a control group [8]. This research reports no adverse side effects, and safety of allantoin has been extensively confirmed [3].

Allantoin also has a marked antimicrobial effect. In a solution with benzalkonium chloride and surfactants, allantoin has been proved effective for treating onychomycosis (fungal infection of toe nail), with 90% of the patients indicating excellent or good improvement of the nail condition [9]. A similar formulation can be used to produce a hand sanitizer capable of outperforming alcohol-containing rivals – this product has also been used in practice, successfully combating infection spread among children in elementary school [10], [11]. Due to this antimicrobial effect, allantoin has also been investigated in experimental treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection (trichomoniasis), where it reduced the incidence of reported infection symptoms [2], [12].

In therapeutic applications, allantoin is often combined with other plant extracts. In research on wound healing it is typically used with onion (Allium cepa) extract [6]–[8]. Together with Vitis vinifera extract, glycyrrhenetic acid, and telmesteine, allantoin is found in Atopiclair (Zarzenda), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of allergic diseases of the skin, such as atopic dermatitis [13]. On the other hand, application of allantoin without any other active ingredients also actively helps in the wound healing process [4].  

Key benefits of Allantoin in skin care:

Anti-inflammatory [2] [13]
Wound healing support [2] [4]
Anti-bacterial [9] [10] [11]
sun damage repair [2] [13]
Scar care [6] [7] [8]1] 


Alpha-Arbutin: Alpha-arbutin (4-hydroxyphenyl-D-lucopyranoside) is a synthetic and functional active ingredient for skin lightening. Alpha Arbutin ensures an even and lighter skin tone, it reduces the degree of skin tanning after UV exposure, and it also helps to minimize the appearance of liver spots. Biosynthetic ingredient, derived from bearberry.  Alpha-Arbutin promotes skin lightening and an even skin tone on all skin types.

AHA- Botanical alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) complex consisting of 15% glycolic acid, 31% lactic acid, 3% citric acid, 1% tartaric acid from extracts of grape (vitis vinifera), lemon (medica  limonum), passionfruit (passiflora quadrangularis), & pineapple (ananas sativus).  Sheds off the outermost layer of skin cells (corneocytes), induces renewal of a skin cell layer, increases the moisturizing level of the skin which improves the flexibility of the upper skin layer.

Argan Oil- (0) is the holy grail oil for dry skin.   It boasts skin reparative benefits along with the very low chance of clogging pores. Another reason to reach for this oil is for its ability to treat acne and acne scars. Argan oil regulates the production of sebum which helps prevent further breakouts and its Vitamin E content helps fade scars and smooth out the skin’s texture. Suitable for most skin types.

Linoleic acid– 37%
Linolenic acid– <0.5%
Oleic acid– 43%
Comedogenic Rating– 0
 

Organic Aloe Vera-Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice- Botanical, moisturizer, skin protectant, humectant. A member of the South African aloe plant leaf, usually a juice, containing water, amino acids and carbohydrates, used as a moisturizer, stabilizer, and light tonic for the skin.  To the best of our knowledge, Organic Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) will not be classified by OEHHA as a Proposition 65 chemical. The OEHHA proposed listing identifies the chemical concerned as "Aloe Vera, whole leaf extract". It defines whole leaf extract of Aloe vera as "the liquid portion of the Aloe vera leaf, (what remains after removal of fibrous material, such as lignified plant fibers)" and importantly clarifies that this substance "is not the same as Aloe vera decolorized whole leaf extract, Aloe vera gel, Aloe vera gel extract, or Aloe vera latex, which would not be covered by this proposed listing." All iLI aloe is decolorized at some point in the processing via carbon filtration to remove Aloin and therefore are not subject to the Proposition 65 proposed listing

Alpha Bisabolol- Oil extracts of the chamomile plant have been used medicinally for millennia.  From China to Egypt to Greece to Brazil, chamomile has been used historically to soothe upset stomachs, reduce inflammation, and ease menstrual pain.  One constituent of this plant in particular, α-bisabolol, has been shown to have powerful antibacterial, antifungi, anti-inflammatory, and tissue regeneration/wound-healing properties [1-3].  This sesquiterpene alcohol is monocyclic and fragrant, and has been included in formulations for lotions, aftershaves, after-sun care products, and various other cosmetics including face creams and lipsticks [2]. 

The plant from which α-bisabolol is extracted is a tropical cousin of chamomile called Candeia, a tree harvested primarily in Brazil.  In order to produce 100 tons of α-bisabolol, 850 hectares of timber must be harvested [4].  Due to the rising demand for α-bisabolol for use in high-end skin care products, it is of little surprise then that the Candeia trees are over-harvested.  In order to meet the demand for this essential oil, scientists have found a way to synthesize α-bisabolol that does not have any significant environmental impact.  Huge strides have been made recently in improving the purity and yield of synthetic α-bisabolol with the newest generation of product available having 85% α-bisabolol content.  Although this value still falls slightly below the 95% α-bisabolol content obtained when sourced naturally, synthetic α-bisabolol offers all of the same benefits without contributing to deforestation and emission of greenhouse gases [5].

α-bisabolol is a powerful anti-microbial agent with known bactericidal properties against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus [6].  Further, fungistatic effects against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes have been reported [6].  As such, α-bisabolol is a desirable component for soaps.

 A recent in vivo mouse study demonstrated that α-bisabolol is effective in reducing inflammation-induced edema of the paw and, via a separate mechanism, also demonstrated anti-nociceptive activity [3].  The anti-inflammatory properties of α-bisabolol have been attributed to reduced release of inflammation-inducing mediators prostaglandin E2 and Cox-2 [7]. 

A rat model investigating the effects of α-bisabolol on wound healing demonstrated that topical application of the compound increases the rate of tissue regeneration [8].  Furthermore, α-bisabolol increases the tensile strength of new tissues [9].  Together, this marks α-bisabolol as an attractive agent for use in sun-damage repair creams as well as wound-care ointments.  There is also speculation that the tissue regeneration promoting abilities of α-bisabolol can reduce the appearance of wrinkles and make skin appear younger; however, this has yet to be validated.

In addition to the ability of α-bisabolol to directly benefit the skin, it has the capability to enhance absorption of other active ingredients by the skin.  Studies have shown that incorporation of α-bisabolol and additional active ingredients into skin care products has increased the absorption of other ingredients by many-fold [9].  Therefore, incorporation of multiple actives can only be enhanced by utilization of α-bisabolol.

Key benefits of Sustainable Alpha Bisabolol in skin care:

Anti-bacterial [1] [2] [3] [6]
Anti-acne [1] [2] [3] [6] [7]
Anti-inflammatory [1] [2] [3] [7]
Moisturizing and hydration [9]
Sun damage repair [1] [7]
Wound healing support [2] [9]
Reduce rosacea


Alpha Hydroxy-Glycolic Acid- AHA Anti-aging, antioxidant; fruit based. Is sometimes combined with phospholipids and Acidophilus. Skin cell renewal and cell shedding. Glycolic Acid is found in simple sugars. Glycolic Acid works by dissolving the intercellular cement responsible for abnormal keratinization (discoloration of the skin), improving skin hydration by enhanced moisture uptake, binding water to the stratum corneum.

Alpha Lipoic Acid- antioxidant; Anti-aging applications have been noted due to its antioxidant nature. A popular new ingredient for skin crmes. Helps to smooth fine lines in mature skin. Accelerates the sloughing off of dead skin, diminishing the signs of actinic keratosis (discoloration of the skin). Skin cell renewal and cell shedding.

Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi Leaf Extract
- Also known as Bearberry Extract, this natural skin lightener works by reducing melanin production. By inhibiting tyrosinase, an enzyme responsible for the formation of melanin in the skin, Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi Leaf Extract is effective for lightening age spots and evening skin tone for an uniform, bright complexion.

Ammonium Laurel Sulfate- A naturally derived surfactant from coconut. It is primarily used as a cleansing agent and is considered gentle and effective.

Baobab Oil- (Organic) The baobab tree, Adansonia digitata, is found in dry regions of South Africa and Namibia [11]. It is considered the largest succulent plant in the world [9]. The name “baobab” comes from a word meaning “fruit with many seeds” [1]. When the seeds are pressed, 10-12% oil can be extracted and used for cosmetic purposes [11]. Traditionally, the seed oil is used as a moisturizing oil [10]. Baobab seed oil is highly absorptive and non-irritating [11]. It is suitable for all skin types. The oil is very stable and good for use as a massage or carrier oil [10]. Also, the consistency of baobab seed oil makes it good for soap making 1].

The oil contains high amounts of fatty acids, including essential fatty acids [omega 3 and 6] that must be supplemented as the body cannot make them. Fatty acids have many therapeutic properties. They are highly emollient, meaning they soften the skin and protect it against dryness [3]. Baobab seed oil has equal amounts of saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids [9]. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds in their chemical structures, while polyunsaturated and monounsaturated have varying amounts of double bonds. The most abundant fatty acids in baobab seed oil are oleic acid and linoleic acid.

Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid, is the most common fatty acid in cosmetic products [5]. It is known to moisturize, heal sunburn, and treat acne [5]. High amounts of oleic acid, an omeg-9 fatty acid, have been connected to anti-oxidant activity [9]. Additionally, oleic acid is known to enhance skin penetration and suppress inflammation [11]. It may also help reduce oil production in pores [11]. In addition to fatty acids, baobab seed oil contains healthy vitamins A, D, E, and F [9]. Vitamins A and F are known to rejuvenate the skin and renew cell membranes [5, 9]. Vitamin E is a known anti-oxidant and has anti-aging effects [5].

Baobab seed oil protects and moisturizes the skin. It is helpful for dry, chapped skin because it restores skin barrier function [9, 13]. It improves the cross-talk between different layers of the skin and balances moisture between them [4]. It is especially helpful for restoring barrier function in thin, aged skin [5, 6, 7]. Baobab seed oil is thought to increase production of anchoring fibrils, a type of collagen that aids in structural soundness of the skin [4]. Additionally, baobab seed oil protects the skin against premature ageing and wrinkles [5] and prevents stretch marks in pregnancy [11]. Due to its excellent moisturizing properties, it is useful for the treatment of eczema and psoriasis [2, 5, 9].

Research shows this oil is useful as an anti-microbial to fight skin infections. Baobab seed oil was shown to be anti-fungal against a panel of fungi and also inhibits or kills various bacterial species [6, 7]. It is anti-inflammatory—a paste made of seeds is traditionally used to help treat inflamed, swollen gums [8].

Baobab seed oil has also been shown to aid in wound and burn healing [5, 11]. It can help prevent and treat sunburn and photo-aging, chronic skin damage due to excessive sun exposure [4]. Baobab seed oil can also have analgesic [pain-relieving] effects. The oil alleviates burn pain and regenerates skin tissue after damage, improving elasticity [5, 9].

Key benefits of Baobab oil in skin care:

Moisturizing and hydration [5] [9] [10] [11]
Restore barrier function [5] [6] [7] [9] [13]
Anti-inflammatory [5] [8] [9] [11]
Wound healing support [5] [9] [11]
Anti-bacterial [5] [6] [7]
Anti-oxidant [5] [9]
Increase skin elasticity [5] [9]
Anti-acne [5]
Sun damage protection [4]
Sun damage repair [5]
Oil/sebum control [11]
Stimulate collagen production [4]

Beta Glucan-  Beta-Glucan is a natural high-molecular weight polysaccharide naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, yeast, bacteria, and fungi. It is derived from mushrooms and is different than beta glucan from oat, barley or other plants. Dissolved in water and glycerin. Does not contain a preservative.   Beta glucan is a 'protect and repair' molecule as it increases natural self- protecting capabilities of the skin and also accelerates skin recovery. Due to its high molecular weight it also has good water-binding capacity and therefore moisturizing effects. Has been shown to stimulate collagen production in-vitro and can reduce appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

BioCBD+   (Hemp Derived Organic CBD, Turmeric, Curcumin, Boswellia, Saffron,, Magnesium) 

Borage Oil-Borago Officinalis- (2) types as an acting emollient and is best known for its ability to soften, soothe, and re-condition the skin. It is truly marvelous as a carrier oil and is equally superb for addition to body care products.  Borage Oil is an amazing skin regenerator due to its gamma linolenic acid content.   Topically is a great way to smooth out the complexion and moisturize the skin. Borage seed oil also reduces inflammation associated with certain skin conditions such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis.

Linoleic acid– 39%
Gamma Linolenic acid– 20%
Oleic acid– 18%
Comedogenic Rating– 2

Boswella Serrata- Boswella serrata is a deciduous tree found in subtropical India, Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Arabic Pennisula (5). The fragrant gum extract of this tree, known commonly as frankincense, is used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory disorders and tumors (2, 5, 9). The active ingredients of boswellia serrata tree gum are boswellic acids. This component accounts for up to 30% of the weight of the gum (5), while up to 16% of the gum is pure essential oil (4). Boswellic acids are specific chemicals with either α or β chemical confirmations. The most common and well-studied boswellic acid is β-boswellic acid (7). The main effects of boswellic acids are anti-inflammatory. Boswellic acids help reduce many sources of inflammation in the body.

The accepted mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of boswellic acids is through inhibiting the formation of leukotrienes (1, 6, 7). Leukotrienes are immune mediators produced by immune cells and play an important role in inflammation. Boswellic acids are unique in that they specifically target an enzyme that forms leukotrienes, 5-LO (6). Research shows boswellic acids also inhibit the actions of inflammatory mediators that cause loss of collagen and elastic fibers in the skin (1). Boswellic acids also increase the activity of fibroblasts, cells that make collagen (1). 

Many studies, both in vitro (outside the body) and in vivo (inside the body), point to this extract’s usefulness in topical treatment of many dermatological conditions. One of these is photoaging, chronic skin damage due to excessive sun exposure. In a clinical study, a cream containing 0.5% boswellic acid improved the appearance of fine lines and skin roughness associated with photoaging and increased skin thickness (1, 5). In another clinical study, a 0.5% boswella serrata extract cream improved 70% of psoriasis cases and 50% of eczema cases (8). 60% of participants had decreased redness and itching. Psoriasis and eczema are inflammatory skin conditions and are two of the most common dermatological disorders (8). Application of 15% boswella serrata resin extract on wounded rats resulted in decreased wound surface area and increased tensile strength of the wound (4). The extract promotes faster wound healing. Boswellic acids also inhibited edemas (fluid trapped underneath skin) in mice and rats (7).

Boswella serrata extract also has antimicrobial properties useful for dermatological applications (10). Treatment with the extract inhibited the growth of anaerobic (oxygen-independent) and aerobic (oxygen-needing) bacteria, including streptococcae, corynebacteria, C. perfringens, and P. acnes. This suggests a role for boswella serrata in treatment of conditions such as acne and eczema, two conditions that can result in painful and visible symptoms (10). As bacterial resistance becomes an increasing problem, this extract has the potential to bring relief.

In addition to improving dermatological conditions, topical application of boswella serrata shows promise for a variety of non-dermatological diseases. One of these is osteoarthritis. Topical application of a boswellic acid (275mg) cream to osteoarthritic joints of mice showed decreased cartilage loss and synovitis (inflammation of a membrane lining the joint) (9). The amount of boswellic acid in the joint was 2-6 times the amount in the blood, showing that boswellic acid can reach the joint with topical application. In vitro experiments with the explanted mouse joints show boswellic acid treatment inhibits inflammatory mediators (9). Another study shows topical application of 2.5%-7.5% boswellic acid in rats can improve arthritis (7). Additionally, topical application of boswella serrata gum extract to the backs of mice inhibited tumor promotion (3).

Key benefits of Boswellia serrata in skin care:

Anti-inflammatory [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
Sun damage repair [1] [5]
Stimulate collagen production [1]
Reduce fine lines [1] [5]
Anti-bacterial [10]
Anti-acne [10]
Tumor inhibition [3]
Wound healing support [4]

Calendula Officinalis Extract ( Organic Calendula),

Carbomer- a group of thickening agents used primarily to create gel-like formulations

Carrageenan- Chondrus Crispus. Irish Moss. A natural stabilizer and emulsifier. Wonderful humectant properties for the skin and hair. Seaweedlike in smell and water soluble.Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide (SLMW Botanical Hyaluronic Acid)- SLMW (super low-molecular-weight) form is made by enzymatically cleaving high-molecular weight hyaluronic acid into small fragments. Molecular weight 8-15kDa.  Smaller molecules enhance skin penetration One of the most powerful humectants known, provides smoothness & softening to the skin, excellent anti-wrinkle effects, ideal ingredient after peelings, soothes irritated skin. Due to the much smaller molecular size of the molecule compared to regular hyaluronic acid, skin penetration is better. Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide is a botanical ingredient retrieved from the Cassia Angustifolia, a native plant to India. In cosmetics it is primarily used as a skin moisturizing agent due to its high content of polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have shown to mimic hyaluronic acid, a component of the skin which assists tissue repair and protection. When applied topically this plant based hyaluronic acid penetrates the dermis to secure moisture and in turn support the skins elasticity and structure. Not only is hyaluronic acid directly correlated to increases in skin moisture, it can adjust itsAlpha Lipoic Acid- antioxidant; Anti-aging applications have been noted due to its antioxidant nature. A popular new ingredient for skin crmes. Helps to smooth fine lines in mature skin. Accelerates the sloughing off of dead skin, diminishing the signs of actinic keratosis (discoloration of the skin). Skin cell renewal and cell shedding.


Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide (SLMW Botanical Hyaluronic Acid)- SLMW (super low-molecular-weight) form is made by enzymatically cleaving high-molecular weight hyaluronic acid into small fragments. Molecular weight 8-15kDa.  Smaller molecules enhance skin penetration One of the most powerful humectants known, provides smoothness & softening to the skin, excellent anti-wrinkle effects, ideal ingredient after peelings, soothes irritated skin. Due to the much smaller molecular size of the molecule compared to regular hyaluronic acid, skin penetration is better. Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide is a botanical ingredient retrieved from the Cassia Angustifolia, a native plant to India. In cosmetics it is primarily used as a skin moisturizing agent due to its high content of polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have shown to mimic hyaluronic acid, a component of the skin which assists tissue repair and protection. When applied topically this plant based hyaluronic acid penetrates the dermis to secure moisture and in turn support the skins elasticity and structure. Not only is hyaluronic acid directly correlated to increases in skin moisture, it can adjust its 

moisture absorption rate based on the humidity of the environment. This natural extract also functions as an anti-inflammatory and a treatment for acne.

Castor Wax (VEGAN) Vegetable-derived (vegan), hydrogenated castor oil derivative that is used as an emollient and thickener in a variety of cosmetic products. 

Cellulose Gum
- Cellulose gum (CMC) is one of the most common hydrocolloid or thickening agent used by the global processed food industry due to its versatility, ease of use and effective cost-in-use.
Cellulose gum is based on natural cellulose strains such as for example the lint from the cotton seed and its main functionality is to add mouth feel and texture, stabilize proteins, retain moisture and form oil-resistant films in a vast variety of food applications.

Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Emulsion- Ceramides are sphingoid and fatty-acids-containing molecules that are found in virtually every tissue, where they exert structural functions and participate in important signaling pathways.[1][2] Contrary to the small amount present in other tissues, stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin) contains relatively high level of ceramides, 40-50% of the total lipids.[1][2] There are 11 subclasses of ceramide species identified from human stratum corneum.[3] Ceramide 1, 2, 5, 10, and 11 have sphingosine base, ceramide 3, 6, and 9 have phytosphingosine base, and ceramide 4, 7, and 8 have 6-hydroxysphingosine base.[3] There is also a new ceramide recently found, possessing a dihydrosphingosine base.[4] There is little discussion on the differences between subclasses, but ceramides with longer chain fatty acids appear to have stronger structural roles due to their ability to pack tighter.[5]
[ceramides in skin care] Stratum corneum, once thought as a passive barrier composed of dead cells, has now been recognized for at least five functional roles: immune response, antioxidant barrier, antimicrobial through certain peptides, photo-damage protection, and permeability maintenance.[6]

It is helpful to think of the stratum corneum as bricks and mortar, with the bricks being the corneocytes (the “dead” cells) and mortar being the lipid bilayers.[7] The intactness of the lipid layers determines the barrier properties, and ceramides, together with cholesterols and fatty acids in these lipid layers, play a critical role in maintaining water content and permeability.[7]

Diseases associated with water barrier dysfunction such as atopic dermatitis/eczema, irritant/contact dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, acne, xerosis, dandruff, and ichthyosis are characterized by reduced ceramide content or altered ceramide profile,[2][6][7][8] largely due to abnormal enzymatic activities involved in ceramide metabolism. For example, in atopic dermatitis, there is a mark decrease in ceramide 1 and 3 and hence water loss.[2][7] In psoriasis, there is a decrease in ceramide 1, 3, 4, 5II, 6I, and 7, accompanied by an increase in ceramide 2I, 2II, and 5I, with a net result of water loss.[2][7]

In healthy skin, disruption of the epidermal barrier (e.g. change in pH, UV irradiation, etc.) which induces water loss across the skin would lead to increases of ceramides and other lipids (both from the lipid store and through new synthesis) and partially restore the water homeostasis within a few hours.[3][6] But in situations where the enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism are dysfunctional, this mechanism is impaired and can lead to decreased elasticity, reduced pliability, cracking, scaling in addition to water loss.[9] Ceramide content loss also increases naturally with aging[7][10] and during winter times.[10] It is hypothesized that supplying ceramide topically would replenish ceramide to a level necessary for proper water barrier and skin function.

Treating acetone[11] or detergent-scaled[12] skin with stratum corneum lipids improved the water-retention function, and among the components present in the lipid mixture, ceramides are the most effective ones. Ceramide can repair the mechanically-induced dry skin.[13] Synthetic ceramide compounds also can repair the mechanically[14] and chemically-induced[15][14] dry skin. However, there are reports showing that ceramides need to be combined with cholesterol and fatty acids to be beneficial[16][17][18][19][6][20], and standalone treatments are not often effective.[21][22][17][23][19][20] Nevertheless, ceramides have been effective at treating atopic dermatitis in children[24][25] and adults[26][27][28], irritant/allergic contact dermatitis[28], as well as repairing barrier function in aged skin.[29]  

The signaling roles of ceramides in epidermis include proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death), through which ceramides have been shown to regulate normal skin cells including keratinocytes and melanocytes.[1] Ceramides might be used against skin cancer because abnormal ceramide level and profile have been found in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma[30] and synthetic ceramides have been shown to promote differentiation and suppress proliferation of human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.[31]

Although using natural ceramides seems more logical, there are some problems associated with it. Cheaper and naturally occurring ceramides are usually extracted from bovine central nervous system, and this raises both ethical and safety concerns (e.g. mad cow disease).[32] Natural ceramides can also be toxic if in excess, such as inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis.[33][34] The toxicity is not observed when using synthetic ceramides.[35] Synthetic ceramides are gaining more popularity due to its ability to overcome these issues.

Key benefits of ceramides in skin care:

Moisturizing and hydration [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]
Restore barrier function [24 ][25] [26] [27] [28] [29]

 Functions of Ceramides in Skin Care

Ceramide 2: Improves water balance. Improves barrier function of the skin
Ceramide 3: Improves water balance. Restores damaged skin. Protects the skin
Ceramide 6II: Increases desquamation without irritation. Improves skin smoothness  
 

 The Relationship of Ceramides in Skin Diseases

Diseases
Ceramide Decrease Psoriasis
Ceramide 1, Ceramide 3, Ceramide 6
Ichthyosis
Ceramide 1, Ceramide 6
Acne (vulgaris)
Ceramide 1 through 6 
Atopic dermatitis
Ceramide 1 through 6
Surfactant-induced dermatitis
Ceramide 3

 

Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis-Roman)- Analgesic, anodyne, antibiotic, antifungal, anti-pholgistic, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aperitive, aromatic, bitter, calmative, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, nervine, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge. Chamomile was known by the Greeks as ground apple. The Cherokee Indians used it in the cases of colic, vomiting and bowel complaints. It helps one to relax and aids digestion and bowel problems. It is an effective easer of menstrual cramps, as well as helping one to sleep, and has even been recommended for people who experience nightmares (especially children). Chamomile is an especially good herb to use while pregnant because it helps one to sleep and relax.

Cholesterol NF- Cholesterol is an organic molecule biosynthesized by animal cells, being an essential structural component of their cell membranes. Its role is mainly to maintain membrane structural integrity and fluidity, enabling animal cells to change shape and move (unlike plants and bacteria which have restrictive cell walls). Cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and Vitamin D [1].  Cholesterol lays in the composition of the skin surface along triglycerides, fatty acids, squelne, wax esters, diglycerides and cholesterol esters [2].
Stratum corneum is the the external layer of the skin, an actual physical barrier between the body and the environment. Once thought as a passive barrier composed of dead cells, stratum corneum performs at least five functional roles, the most important being: immune response, antioxidant barrier, antimicrobial through certain peptides, photo-damage protection, and permeability maintenance [3].

The major lipids found in the composition of stratum corneum that contribute to the water permeability barrier are ceramides, cholesterol and fatty acids. Although the ceramides were once thought to be the key to skin moisturization, studies now suggest that no particular lipid is more important than the others. It appears that the proportion of fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol is the most important parameter [4]. It was demonstrated that a topically applied mixture of stratum corneum lipids was incorporated in nucleated layer of epidermis and accelerated the repair of the barrier after being damaged thus showing the efficiency of the ceramide-cholesterol-fatty acids topical treatment by regulating endogenous factors in the epidermis [5]
The importance of concomitant use of cholesterol together with ceramides and fatty acids in a optimized ratio was emphasized in several studies. For instance, after altering the water barrier with acetone, the application of a combination of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol resulted in normal barrier recovery. The study showed the specific requirements of selected stratum corneum lipid mixtures for optimized barrier repair. The use of physiologic lipids according to these parameters could lead to new forms of topical treatment for several skin conditions of heterogeneous origin triggered by abnormal barrier function [6]. A follow-up study revealed that an optimal lipid mixture is capable of accelerating barrier repair following disruption of the barrier by chemical (solvent treatment) or mechanical (tape stripping) damage [7].  

Cholesterol in lipid mixtures is an efficient treatment for a wide variety of skin barrier disorders such as: environment-induced dermatitis, environment-induced xerosis, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, psoriasis, seboreic dermatitis and others [8]. In a clinical study that aimed to evaluate the protection of normal, healthy skin against detergent-induced dermatitis by monitoring TEWL, cholesterol containing stratum corneum lipid mixtures proved to be an efficient topical measure [9]. Cholesterol alone showed statistically relevant better results than urea in topically treating ichthyosis – a severe skin condition with symptoms as extreme skin dryness and scaling. In an open perspective, half-side trial 90% of the subjects showed improvement under 10% cholesterol cream topical treatments [10]. Treating acetone[11] or detergent-scaled[12] skin with stratum corneum lipids improved the water-retention function thus maintaining hydration and moisturization and avoiding the transepidermal water loss process, the main cause for excessive dryness of the skin.

Cholesterol levels content loss also increases naturally with aging and during winter times [13] Dynamic barrier studies have shown that the most profound lipid biosynthetic abnormality in aging was in cholesterol rather than ceramide or fatty acid biosynthesis. It has been shown that a cholesterol-dominant lipid mixture accelerates barrier recovery in aged skin whereas a fatty-acid-dominant mixture delays barrier recovery. In young skin, any of the lipid species can be the dominant lipid and the barrier will recover more quickly [14]. Concluding, it can be stated that supplying lipid mixtures topically could help replenish the lipids to a level necessary for proper water barrier and skin function and implicitly rejuvenate the dermal activity.

Key benefits of cholesterol in skin care:

restore barrier function [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] 12] [13] [14]
moisturizing and hydration [5] [8] [14]

Citric Acid- pH adjuster.

Colloidal Silver- A powerful healing agent and natural antibiotic.

CoQ10- Coenzyme Q10 (also called ubiquinone) is a molecule with great importance for energy production in human cells. Since its role in helping the energy-generating enzymes has been known for almost 50 years, it is rather well researched, yet new benefits of this coenzyme are still being discovered. Besides metabolism, it is very important as an antioxidant – it is the only lipid antioxidant naturally produced in human cells, meaning that it can reach and neutralize oxidation damage in water-insoluble molecules [1]. More recently, it was discovered that coenzyme Q10 acts as a gene regulator, and can control inflammation, cell signaling, nutrient transport and other processes [2].

Oxidation of cellular components is associated with many negative conditions, among them ageing. Coenzyme Q10 has been proven to protect skin cells from oxidative stress, especially following UV exposure (photoageing). This effect has been shown several times, using the coenzyme in various carriers and formulations [3]–[6]. While the primary target of this antioxidant is the lipids, it can also effectively reduce UV-caused damage to DNA [5]. Even more, coenzyme Q10 promotes the synthesis of enzymes that help neutralize oxidizing agents. After UV exposure, the levels of these enzymes in skin cells fall to around 30 % of normal, and applying coenzyme Q10 restores the levels to 80 % of normal, thus helping the cellular repairs after UV exposure [7]. Due to all these properties, applying coenzyme Q10 ultimately helps to prevent cell death caused by oxidative agents [8].

In the beginning of 2015, yet another benefit of coenzyme Q10 was discovered. Not only UV, but infrared A radiation from sunlight is also able to cause the photoageing effect and skin damage. However, previously it was not known that protection from this radiation is possible. In the recent study it was shown otherwise – a SPF30 sunscreen containing coenzyme Q10, vitamin C and vitamin E was able to protect the skin from damage, while sunscreen alone had no protective effect against this type of radiation [9].

The effects of coenzyme Q10 applications also extend to other components damaged by UV exposure. Collagen is among such examples, as oxidative damage promotes its degradation. However, coenzyme Q10 interferes with this degradation [5]. Enhancement of collagen synthesis has also been observed [10]. This molecule also promotes the growth of basal membrane, a collagenous layer underneath the epidermis [8]. It has been shown that coenzyme Q10 applications (in the form of 1% cream) reduce wrinkle depth, and most likely these mechanisms are responsible for this effect [5], [11].

Sunlight also induces melanin synthesis in the skin, leading to darkening; this effect can also be counteracted by coenzyme Q10 [10]. Furthermore, this molecule is able to reduce the inflammation caused by sunlight or other causes [10], [12]. This anti-inflammatory action, together with promotion of collagen synthesis, leads to yet another application of coenzyme Q10 – skin cuts in mice, treated with coenzyme Q10, healed faster and with less signs of inflammation [13].

As natural production of coenzyme Q10 decreases with age, its use is particularly advised for older patients [14]. Additionally, in patients with Parkinson’s disease, coenzyme Q10 can restore energy production in skin cells [15]. It is suggested to formulate this coenzyme together with vitamin E, as these two molecules can support each other’s activity [14]. Combinations with various other antioxidants also result in enhanced effect, exceeding that of any antioxidant alone [6].

"What can CoQ10 do for your skin? Theoretically speaking, CoQ10 (in a skin cream, for example) can be helpful. In most people over thirty, levels of CoQ10 in the skin are below optimum, resulting in lesser ability to produce collagen, elastin and other important skin molecules. Besides, CoQ10-depleted skin may be more prone to the damage by free radicals, which are particularly abundant in the skin since it is exposed to the elements.Thus, CoQ10 may boost skin repair and regeneration and reduce free radical damage. Furthermore, CoQ10 is a small molecule that can relatively easily penetrate into skin cells." Todorov, G., Can coenzyme Q10 help protect and repair your skin?, Smartskincare
 About CoQ10 for Sun Damage Protection Pinnell et al. [11] claim that CoQ10 is NOT as effective for sun protection as Pinnell's Vitamin C+E+Ferulic.  
 We strongly suggest that Vitamin C be the main weapon in your fight against sun damage, and that CoQ10 or Idebenone are used at night to help increase cellular energy production

Key benefits of Coenzyme Q10 in skin care:

Sun damage protection [5] [7] [9]
Antioxidant [1] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]
Increase cellular energy production [15]
Stimulate collagen production [5] [8] [10] [13]
Lightening & brightening [10]
Sun damage repair [5] [7] [8]
Reduce fine lines & wrinkles [5] [11]
Wound healing support [13]
Anti-inflammatory [6] [10] [12] [13]

Crithmum Maritimum (Sea Fennel Wax)-AEROLEAT SAMPHIRA (RETINOL ALTERNATIVE) The ocean is the birthplace of life. In this aqueous cauldron over 3.5 billion years ago, the elements that would eventually make up all bio-material on the planet were starting to percolate. To this day, the seas are swimming with a rich diversity of plant and animal organisms. And on the craggy shores of such crisp, nutrient rich oceans, grows Sea Fennel. Fed by the silica in the sand and the immense amounts of nutrients carried by ocean waters and breezes, Sea Fennel (known in the Private Label Personal Care world by its scientific name: Crithmum Maritimum) has long been honored for its healing and medicinal purposes. Today, the extract of Sea Fennel is one of THE best skin care ingredients for anti-aging and over-all skin strength and luster. Sea Fennel Extract softens the skin, unclogs pores, boosts collagen, reduces fine lines, speeds cell turnover and evens out skin discoloration and texture. It enables the epidermis to regain its youth and vitality and improves radiance and tone. The secret of blue-green, beauty-bestowing plant is it’s rich, bio-available nutrients! Sea Fennel Extract is often considered a plant alternative to Retinol– but we think of it as an upgrade! Retinol and, more generally, retinoids are synthetic versions of Vitamin A. Used in many skin care products to refine texture and boost the appearance of glow, synthetic Retinoids are actually are only partially effective because their nourishment isn’t bio-available. Synthetic ingredients they are lacking natural synergists that make themselves recognizable to the body. When a vitamin, mineral, protein or what have you, enters the as a synthetic, the body does not realize it is there, because it does not of the natural counterparts that normally accompany it and help activate it. The result is that the nutrient goes unprocessed and unused. Sea Fennel, which is lush with radiance-delivering sea-minerals, vitamins A, C, E, amino acid peptides, pigments and polyphenols, can effectively stimulate skin renewal and boost collagen and elastin because those nutrients are bio available!DMAE- 2-Dimethylaminoethanol [DMAE] is a compound structurally similar to choline, a precursor to acetylcholine [9]. DMAE can be methylated to form choline. Acetylcholine is mainly thought of as a neurotransmitter, but there is non-neuronal free acetylcholine present in skin. It is thought to have actions separate from its neuronal activity. Acetylcholine regulates basic cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and locomotion [3]. Additionally, choline is an important molecule in phospholipids, which make up cell membranes [4]. Compromised cell membranes can be a sign of aging. DMAE is found naturally in fish such as salmon, but it is also present in small amounts in the human brain [6]. It was originally supplemented orally to treat central nervous system disorders, but it essentially hardened areas of the brain, so focus shifted toward DMAE’s topical applications [8].

DMAE is a powerful anti-aging active ingredient. In a clinical study, skin treated with a 3% DMAE gel showed greater tensile strength [9]. This is good for sagging, aged skin. In another clinical study, a 9% DMAE topical formulation increased collagen fiber thickness and dermal [deep skin layer] thickness [8]. Dermal thickness decreases with aging, about 6% each decade. It also increased skin hydration and reduced wrinkles, under-eye dark circles, and overall had a “lifting” effect [8]. This group reported no adverse effects of using topical DMAE over the course of a year. 3% DMAE is considered safe and effective at reducing wrinkles and improving lip shape and fullness and tightening neck skin [3]. Also, topical application of DMAE does not irritate the skin. The effects of DMAE lasted at least two weeks. In another study, a formulation 
​containing DMAE increased firmness in photoaged skin, skin with chronic damage due to sun exposure [7].

The mechanism of DMAE is currently unknown, although there are many possible theories. One is that DMAE increases the amount of acetylcholine deep in the skin, stimulating the muscles of the face. DMAE’s “lifting” effect is often attributed to its effects on the facial musculature. Other studies show DMAE is unable to increase levels of acetylcholine [4]. Other theories are that DMAE has anti-inflammatory actions [3, 6] and that it increases collagen production [6]. DMAE has also been shown to have free radical scavenging activity [3]. Free radicals cause skin damage and promote premature skin aging. DMAE also helps decrease protein crosslinking, a characteristic of aging [3]. Protein crosslinking can reduce the activity of proteins, which are essential for bodily functions.

Pure DMAE is extremely basic, meaning it has a pH well above 7, the approximate pH of skin. This makes pure DMAE unsatisfactory for skin care use. An in vitro [outside the body] study using fibroblasts [collagen-producing cells] shows pure DMAE reduces cell proliferation with increasing concentrations [2.5-10%] [2]. This is likely because the basic pure DMAE caused a rapid change in pH that negatively affected the cells. Pure DMAE has also been shown to increase swelling indicative of vacuolization, a negative skin response, when applied to rabbit ears [5]. Therefore, the salt form of DMAE, DMAE bitartrate is commonly used. In a comparison between pure DMAE and DMAE bitartrate, both showed stable behavior and had the same storage characteristics [1]. DMAE bitartrate has a neutral pH of 7 compatible with skin.

"It has been demonstrated that DMAE causes some degree of skin tightening. However, despite speculation it remains unclear how DMAE firms the skin -- whether by stabilizing the membranes, boosting acetylcholine, reducing lipofuscin deposits or none of the above. Whatever the mechanism, the effect of DMAE is often noticeable although seldom dramatic.
Besides, even though DMAE can't fully reverse the existing facial sag, it may reduce its further progression. Some people report a cumulative effect with continued use of DMAE."
Dr. G. Todorov. Will DMAE lift your face, or just your wallet?, Smartskincare.com.

Key benefits of DMAE bitartrate in skin care: 

Wrinkle tightener [3] [7] [8] [9]
Anti-inflammatory [3] [6]
Moisturizing and hydration [8]
Antioxidant [3]
Reduce dark circles under eyes [8]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [3] [5] [7] [8] [9]


D panthenol- (Dexpanthenol), also known as provitamin B5, is the stable alcohol form of pantothenic acid which is a key player in maintenance of epithelial function and skin regrowth, being a normal constituent of skin and hair. D panthenol is not found naturally, thus synthetic dexpanthenol is converted to pantothenic acid in the skin, stimulating skin regeneration in a manner comparable to vitamin A. This process of cell division and formation of new skin tissue restores skin elasticity and promotes wound healing [1].
 
Due to its anti-inflammatory properties and its solubility dexpanthenol is used in the treatment of various conditions such as: acnea vulgaris, alopecia, lupus, wound healing, with extrapolated research to other epithelial diseases such as celiac disease and other digestive tract conditions. D panthenol has very low toxicity and inexistent adverse reactions, making it suitable for human consumption and use [2]
 
D panthenol is water soluble and hydroscopic and has skin moisturization potential, especially when combined with the widely used moisturizing agent glycerol [3]. D panthenol based formulations increased skin moisture in stratum corneum and had a significant effect on skin barrier function by decreasing TEWL (Transepidermal Water Loss) values and improving the skin barrier function in addition [4] Studies emphhasised that treatment with a dexpanthenol-containing cream significantly enhances skin barrier repair and stratum corneum hydration, while reducing skin roughness and inflammation. [5] [6].
 
D panthenol is responsible for in vitro and in vivo activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen [7]. In vivo wound–healing studies revealed considerable effects of dexpanthenol on gene regulation in comparison to placebo treatment in all samples. An upregulation of 95 genes could be detected after D panthenol treatment [8].
 
D panthenol exhibits protective effects against skin irritation with applications in contact dermatitis, a condition affecting a large pool of individuals both in domestic and professional situations. D panthenol exhibits protective effects against skin irritation, both in vitro and in vivo situations [9].  Another application of D panthenol is the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), a common chronic relapsing disease particularly affecting children. The emollient used for protection of skin barrier function is the standard treatment for patients with AD. The topical treatment with D panthenol ointment is as effective as hydrocortisone, with no statistical difference between them. Concluding, dexpanthenol ointment may be used as alternative treatment in mild to moderate childhood AD therapy avoiding long term side effects of hydrocortisone [10]. D panthenol is also involved in the process of reducing UV induced erythema.  The efficacy of the active was assessed by colorimetry via the reduction of redness and by measuring the change in microcirculation by laser Doppler [11] [12].
 
Dexpanthenol has been shown to reduce acnea vulgaris and its effect. Under topical treatment the face became noticeably less oily and a decrease in facial sebum secretion occurred, facial pore size had become noticeably smaller, existing acne lesions had begun to heal, and the rate of new acne eruptions had slowed, finally getting the disease under control. It was shown that the gravity of the acne needs to be approached with proportional higher dexpanthenol dosage [13]. D panthenol is also an adjuvant in healing post acne-treatment scars and inflammation. Dexpanthenol cream signifcantly improves mucocutaneous side effects associated with isotretinoin therapy [14]
 
The latest tendencies are to use the moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties of dexpanthenol as adjuvant in cosmetic procedures. D panthenol based ointments were successfully used in reducing effects of chemical peeling and laser rejuvenation therapies [15].

Key benefits of D-Panthenol USP in skin care:

Moisturizing and hydration [3]-[6]
Wound healing support [7] [8]
Anti-inflammatory [9]-[12] [15]
Sun damage repair [12]
Anti-acne [13][14]
Oil/sebum control [13]


Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)- Alterative, anti-rheumatic, aperient, bitter, blood purifier, calcium solvent, cholagogue, deobstruent, depurative, diuretic, galactagogue, hepatic, intoxicant, laxative, nutritive, stimulant, stomachic, general tonic. Dandelions Latin name, Taraxacum, comes from the Greek word taraxos, meaning disorder remedy. It is rich in potassium, improves overall health, and increases mobility. This herb is known for inducing the flow of bile from the liver, reduces serum cholesterol and uric acid content in the body, and has been used a poultice for breast cancer. European herbalists use the juice of the Dandelion root to treat liver diseases and diabetes, as well as to build up the blood in cases of anemia. Dandelion greens contain seven-thousand units of vitamin A per ounce, making it one of the best herbs possible for anything related to the skin and connective tissues. Its high content of potassium is coupled with a high organic sodium content, making it a balancer of electrolytes in the body

Decyl Glucoside- Decyl glucoside is a mild, plant derived, biodegradable, natural, and gentle coconut based cleanser. A non-ionic surefactant used in cosmetic formularies including baby shampoo and in products for individuals with sensitive skin.

Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate- Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate is a disodium salt used as a gentle nonionic surfactant. It is safe and gentle and rates zero on the toxicity rating for Skin Deep.

Distillate Waters-  Hydrosols are exquisite aromatic waters derived from fruits, herbs, plants, and flowers that have been distilled to produce essential oils. They are hydrating, nurturing, healing, protective, cleansing, and restorative to the skin when applied topically.

Edelweiss Organic, high-purity extract from the Swiss alpine flower Edelweiss (leontopodium alpinum). For natural and/or organic products. Active ingredients: bisabolane, sitosterol, tannin, chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin, luteolin-4-glucoside. Preserved with vegetal glycerin, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate. Very high radical scavenging activity of antioxidant products of 286 (= Radical Protection Factor, RPF). Antioxidant activity twice as much as vitamin C.  Potent antioxidant. Can improve appearance of aged and/or irritated skin. Often used together with sun protecting agents.

Essential Oils- see essential oils section for more specific information regarding each oil. Essential oils not only have therapeutic fragrances, but also contain countless varied compounds that facilitate healing and renewal for the skin and body. Pure food grade essential oils are used in many alternative healing traditions and have been for millennia.

Ethylhexyl Glycerin- This is a natural and gentle preservative derived from glycerin and used in various skin, hair, and body care formulations.

Eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis)- Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, bitter, tonic. The origin of the name Eyebright comes from the Greed word Euphrosyne, meaning gladness. In Paradise Lost, Milton relates that Michael the Archangel used Eyebright to cure Adam of the eye infliction he suffered from eating the forbidden fruit. Eyebright is used for problems relating to mucous membranes, and is quite effective in treating chronic and acute inflammations of the eye. When the oil of eyebright is applied directly to the eyeball it is activated by sunlight and begins to strengthen and sooth the cornea, ciliary muscle, ligaments, lens, retina, iris, and optic nerves. This results in improved eyesight and has even been proven to both retard and reverse cataracts. Aside from benefiting the eyes, Eyebright is also a blood cleanser and liver stimulant.

Ferulic acid-  is an organic acid, found naturally in several Chinese medicinal herbs and some common plant foods, such as rice bran, olives, artichokes, or, surprisingly, popcorn [1]. It has numerous benefits for health, many of them coming from its antioxidant properties: it can help combat hypertension, diabetes, Alzheimer‘s disease and even cancer. However, used orally, it is rather ineffective due to low absorption. On the other hand, ferulic acid skin application is an efficient means of transporting it into the body [2]. Therefore, this application should be considered not only for skincare, but also for the systemic benefits of ferulic acid.

Due to its chemical structure, ferulic acid strongly absorbs UV light. Combined with the antioxidant capabilities, this effect protects other cellular components from radiation damage, so ferulic acid is a desirable ingredient in many sunscreens and lotions [3]. Applying ferulic acid directly after UV exposure had a strong protective effect on volunteers’ skin, as measured by reduced erythema (redness) [4]. This effect is comparable to that of vitamins C and E combined [5]. Second important property of ferulic acid is the antioxidant activity. It is an effective scavenger of free radicals, which are involved in many detrimental processes from cancer development to cell senescence. For example, a superoxide radical can be neutralized equally well by specialized body enzymes or ferulic acid alone [3]. Following UV exposure, the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the cells decrease, but ferulic acid can restore these levels and decrease the amounts of free radicals [6].

Both of these properties led to ferulic acid being used as an addition to photoprotective cosmeceuticals. Most often, a combination of 15 % ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 1 % alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) and 0.5 % ferulic acid is used. This combination results in twice stronger protection against erythema and sunburn, confirmed by numerous clinical studies [5], [7], [8]. Even UV-induced DNA damage and mutations can be prevented by applying this mixture, leading to decrease in cancer occurence [9], [10]. It is one of the most potent formulations used, as its effectiveness exceeds numerous other chemicals and plant products tested [11], [12]. Ferulic acid possibly achieves this by stabilizing the vitamins – they degraded rather quickly in simple cosmetic formulations, while addition of ferulic acid resulted in almost no degradation after storing the mixture for a month at a high temperature [5]. Usage of antioxidants instead of simple sunscreens is advised, since sunscreens are easily removed by sweating, rubbing and degradation, while antioxidants, once inside the skin, remain active for several days [9]. Additionally, they offer more complete protection against UV of different wavelengths.

Ferulic acid is also able to increase collagen levels in the skin. During investigations of fermented Opuntia ficus-indica extract, which restores collagen synthesis after UV exposure, it was found that the main component of the extract is ferulic acid [13]. Matrix metalloproteinases are degrading enzymes that are activated by UV radiation damage. The activity of these enzymes is significantly reduced by ferulic acid, leading to reduced photoageing of the skin: namely, ferulic acid prevents collagen degradation and restores normal thickness of the epidermis [14]. Using skin cells, it was noticed that melanin concentrations are reduced by the ferulic acid and vitamin E combination, so these ingredients are also beneficial for skin lightening [15]. It has even been used in hair creams, to combat alopecia (hair loss), seborrhea and pruritis [3].

Key benefits of Ferulic acid in skin care:

Sun damage protection [4] [5]] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
Sun damage repair [9] [10] [13] [14]
Antioxidant [1] [3] [7] [8] [9]
Stimulate collagen production [13] [14]
Lightening & brightening [15]
Anti-androgenetic alopecia [3]
Stabilizes l ascorbic acid [5]

The addition of ferulic acid to 15% pure L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 1% alpha tocopherol (vitamin E) increases the environmental protection.

This antioxidant combination enhances protection against damaging UV rays to better prevent visible signs of aging.
Stimulates collagen production to help diminish the appearance of photodamage.

Kosher Vegetable Glycerin- A natural humectant and affordable moisturizer. Vegetable based.

Glycolic Acid-  Glycolic acid is a naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids (or AHAs). It is being used to rejuvenate the skin by encouraging the shedding of old surface skin cells. Glycolic acid is the alpha hydroxy acid most frequently used for peel products. Synonym: hydroacetic acid. Clear, slightly yellowish liquid. Characteristic odor. Concentration: 70% (30% water). Grade: CG. pH Value 0.5-2.0.

Globularia Cordifolia Callus Culture Extract- (PLANT STEM CELLS
)This extract is derived from Globularia Cordifolia, a plant native to the mountains of central and southern Europe, and grown via plant stem cells. A New Technology Award nominee, this active ingredient helps skin to naturally decrease the level of pro-aging agents while reducing toxin-induced micro inflammations. This French developed constituent also works to soothe the skin, reduce redness, and improve evenness.

Organic Goldenseal Extract: Goldenseal root also known as yellow root or Indian turmeric. Contains 20% extract dissolved in water and glycerin, preserved with phenoxyethanol. Light to medium amber liquid. Contains berberine which is has been known for centuries to soothe skin irritations. Gotu Kola (Hydrocotyle asiatica)- Centella asiatica is a tropical herb, growing in the tropical regions of America, Africa and Asia, where it is also called Gotu kola. Its extracts are used in various pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical preparations, designed for a wide range of purposes. Centella is well-known in Indian medicine, where the extracts are used to treat eczema, psoriasis and even syphilis, while others report its antidepressant and analgesic power [1]. The pharmacological effect of these extracts is ascribed to three chemicals – asiatic acid, madecassic acid and asiaticoside [2].

Foremost usage of Centella is in wound care. It may be used to treat non-healing and infected wounds, scars, burns and even alleviate radiotherapy damage [2], [3]. In rats, applying Centella cream three times a day for 24 days even on open wounds increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, making them heal faster [4]. An increase in collagen content and tensile strength were also observed. In guinea pigs, asiaticoside was also found to improve the amounts of collagen, together with faster healing [5]. Asiaticoside was effective even against delayed-healing wounds in both human and animal studies with no observed side effects, marking the importance of Centella for diabetes patients [5], [6]. Centella asiatica can also overcome the anti-healing effect of steroid drugs [1].

The three main active ingredients of Centella were shown to increase both collagen and hydroxyproline content (one of the building blocks of collagen) in cells and extracellular areas, suggesting remodeling of the tissue at wound sites. It is believed that these compounds promote cell proliferation, as well as growth factor production and activation [2], [7]. Asiaticoside was also found to induce synthesis of natural antioxidants, among them vitamin E, C and catalase, in rats. This effect is believed to help at early stages of wound healing [8]. Besides the effect on collagen, each of the tested ingredients was also able to stimulate the synthesis of hyaluronic acid [2]. Recent research suggests even new applications for Centella extracts. It has been successfully used on human skin to reduce ageing damage, caused by inflammation and glycation [9]. It also protects against UV and reduces darkening after UV exposure [9], [10]

Centella can be combined with other ingredients to achieve synergistic effects. A herbal ointment containing Centella and other plant extracts was found to improve the appearance of dermatitis patients’ skin under dry or cold weather conditions [11]. Combined with onion extract, Centella cream has successfully improved the stretch mark appearance, as evaluated both by participating women and the researchers [12]. Similar effect (reduced severity of stretch marks and even prevention) was found using a cream where Centella is combined with other ingredients, such as vitamin E, suggesting that the extract of this plant is responsible for the primary effect in scar treatment [13]. Addition of vitamins A, E or C also strengthens the collagen-promoting effect of Centella [7]. In patients with photoaged (UV-damaged) skin, dermally applied madecassoside (extracted from Centella) and vitamin C preparation resulted in a significant improvement in firmness, elasticity and skin hydration, confirmed by objective measurements [14]. Finally, recommended usage of Centella extracts is 1 % in cream or 2 % in powder form [2].

Key benefits of Centella asiatica in skin care:

Wound healing support [1] [2] [4] [5] [8]
Stimulate HA production [2]
Stimulate collagen production [2] [4] [5] [7]
reduce fine lines and wrinkles [2] [4] [5] [7]
Increase skin elasticity [2]
Glycation inhibitor and repair [9]
Scar care [2] [4] [12]
Sun damage protection [9]

  Adaptogenic, alterative, anti-pyretic, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, blood purifier, diuretic, nervine, sedative, stimulant, brain tonic. Gotu Kola is popular among many people for enhancing brain function and improving memory. It purifies the blood, balances hormones and the nervous system, and helps with menopausal problems in women. There is a Sinhalese proverb which says Two leaves a day keep old age away, referring to Gotu Kolas reputation as a longevity herb. Gotu Kola stimulates the brain while calming it at the same time. It has been used as a blood cleanser for skin diseases, and in the Far East has been employed for leprosy and tuberculosis.

Green Tea Eco Extract, EcoCERT Organic (Thea cinensis, Camellia sinensis)-  Green tea usage in skincare is the focus of many researchers. During the preparation of the leaves, certain enzymes are inactivated by heat and this helps to preserve the polyphenols. Among these, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and it is responsible for most of the health benefits of the green tea extract [1]. Polyphenols are potent antioxidants, so the early research was focused on this and UV-protective effects. However, later studies found that green tea is useful in treating wounds, preventing skin ageing, managing acne, hair loss, even fighting cancer, psoriasis, dermatitis and other skin diseases [2]. An interesting fact is that when applied dermally, green tea extract does not show any toxic effects, while high oral doses can be dangerous [3].

Concerning UV exposure, the cosmetical and pharmaceutical benefits of green tea applications are well-researched. EGCG protects the skin from reddening, DNA damage and even cell death following UV exposure [4]. The strong antioxidants found in green tea neutralize free radicals. This helps to prevent various aspects of radiation damage, and most importantly cancer [3]. Reduced inflammation and improved DNA repair capabilities help to prevent melanoma formation [1]. UV radiation also causes thinning of the epidermis, while application of EGCG restores the thickness [5]. Recent research also indicates that tea extracts decrease melanin accumulation, so they could be used as skin lightening agents [6]. Addition of vitamin C or alpha-lipoic acid improve the stability of EGCG, thus producing even stronger antioxidative effect [7].

Furthermore, green tea extract helps to maintain the barrier function of the skin. Even a single application of emulsion containing 20 % of this extract significantly improved hydration of the skin. After a 5-day course of treatment, the water loss through volunteer skin epidermis was found to be significantly reduced, indicating that skin barrier function improved [8]. After longer application (30 days), a cream with 6 % green tea extract was found to improve the elasticity of the skin, indicating that the hydrating effect reached deeper layers of the skin as well. Skin appearance was also improved, judging by decreased roughness, and the barrier-maintaining effect was confirmed [9]. In yet another clinical trial, where green tea was formulated with lotus extract, a 50 % improvement in skin roughness and reduced amount of wrinkles were observed [10]. Skin dryness is characteristic of UV-aged skin. Tea extract relieves this condition, and also reduces wrinkling of such skin by increasing the amount of collagen [11].

Recently it was discovered that green tea extract can be used as an acne treatment. This condition is characterized by redness, inflammation and increased sebum production, all of which were successfully reduced after 2 months of green tea extract application [12]. However, this extract treats not only the symptoms, but the underlying cause as well – it effectively kills Propionibacterium acnes, the bacteria responsible for this disorder [13]. This antibacterial effect is also very useful in wound care. Surprisingly, both EGCG and green tea extract can combat bacteria that are resistant to most currently used antibiotics [14]. Fungal parasites of the skin are also sensitive to EGCG [15]. Even wounds infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been successfully treated by dermal application of EGCG [16]. The healing processes of non-infected wounds are aided as well, especially the regrowth of blood vessels [17]. This effect is of particular interest to diabetes patients, as this disease impairs normal healing and ulcers form frequently. However, green tea extract, together with alpha lipoic acid, has been shown to restore wound healing in diabetic mouse skin [18]. General blood vessel health is also promoted by the green tea extract. A cream containing 2.5 % EGCG was found to help regulate capillary growth signals and prevent telangiectasia (“spider veins”) [19]. Finally, even hair loss can be countered by applying EGCG, as it reduces follicle death resulting from testosterone and other signals  [20], [21].
 Green Tea (EGCG) and sun protection

"EGCG, a prime component of green tea, provides broad-spectrum protection against UV light-induced DNA damage and immune system dysfunction of the skin. Topical green tea extract is exceptional in preventing the inflammation and oxidative stress associated with UV light-induced skin damage. As a result, scientists believe green tea may help prevent skin cancers that commonly result from exposure to the sun's radiation."
 Steven V. Joyal, MD,' The Sunscreen Paradox - Popular Misconceptions About Skin Cancer Prevention'. LE Magazine June 2006.
 
Green Tea Polyphenols: Powerful Antioxidant Protection
"Numerous studies have shown that topical application of green tea confers broad-spectrum protection against photodamage, one of the leading causes of visibly aged skin. Polyphenols from green tea leaves have been found to protect against the adverse effects of overexposure to ultraviolet light"
Dave Tuttle, 'Scientifically Advanced Skin Care', LE Magazine January 2007.
 
What green tea can and cannot do for your skin
"Findings from a new study confirm that tea extracts applied to the skin promote the repair of damage from radiotherapy, and shed light on the mechanisms involved in the injury. The beneficial effects of the extracts are mostly from their ability to attenuate the body signals that trigger inflammation." Dr. G. Todorov, smartskincare.com
 "Green tea appears to exert sun damage protection by quenching free radicals and reducing inflammation rather than by blocking UV rays. Therefore, green tea may synergistically enhance sun protection when used in addition to a sunscreen." 

Key benefits of Green Tea EGCG in skin care:

Sun damage protection [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
Sun damage repair [1] [2] [3]
Antioxidant [1] [2] [3] [7]
Capillary health [19]
Moisturizing & hydration [8] [9] [11]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [10] [11]
Wound healing support [17] [18]
Oil/sebum control [12]
Lightening & brightening [6]
Restore barrier function [8] [9]
Anti-inflammatory [1]
Anti-acne [12] [13]
Anti-bacterial [13] [14] [16]

Haematococcus Pluvialis Extract (Astaxanthin) in known as the King of Carotenoids. Derived naturally from fired up micro algae, Astaxanthin is 600 times more effective at antioxidant activity and skin repair than vitamin c. Astaxanthin also creates a natural sun protection factor in the dermal layers that allows for sun exposure minus the inherent inflammation and collagen breakdown which normally occurs. Astaxanthin repairs collagen production, removes aging free radical damage, eliminates the source of aging which is inflammation, and restores skin to elastic, bright, pimple and wrinkle free tones and textures. Studies performed with Astaxanthin and skin health and repair show an immediate improvement in skin tone, elasticity and firmness upon its introduction. Use it. Your natural beauty will come forth…which is what we all intend when it comes to skin health and personal care. Astaxanthin is bright orange in color. Suggested use is from 0.01% up to 1%.

Horsetail (Equisetum arvense)- Astringent, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue (mild), galactagogue, hemostatic, lithotriptic, nutritive, parasiticide, vulnerary. Horsetail is a strong astringent, making it effective in the treatment of both internal and external wounds. It has been used for centuries as a diuretic to aid in kidney infections, dropsy, and gravel, as well as a wash for swollen eyelids. In Guatemala, it has been used for cancer. Horsetail is a perfect herb to combat aging due to its high content of silica. It strengthens the fingernails and hair, keeps the muscles and skin supple, and helps to facilitate the use of calcium in the body. Horsetail also kills parasite eggs, dissolves tumors, shrinks inflamed mucosal tissue, stimulates urine flow, and aids in circulation. It speeds up the recovery process in the case of broken bones, reduces menstrual bleeding, and has been used historically for the treatment of diabetes.

 SLMW Hyaluronic Acid- Hyaluronic Acid is one of the most exciting ingredients on the market today. It was discovered by Karl Meyer in 1934 and has been successfully used in personal care and wound healing. Until the 1990s the only method of producing hyaluronic acid was extracting it from rooster combs. Currently there are two forms of hyaluronic acid on the market; one derived from rooster comb and the other derived by the fermentation of yeast. I Label It only carries the 100% vegan approved material.   Hyaluronic acid (sodium hyaluronate) is a natural polysaccharide (sugar) that occurs in body tissues including the skin providing hydration, stability, lubrication. It is biotechnologically produced from glucose, soy peptone & yeast extract (does not contain any animal products). The SLMW (super low-molecular-weight) form is made by enzymatically cleaving high-molecular weight hyaluronic acid into small fragments. Molecular weight 8-15kDa. Smaller molecules enhance skin penetration.
Hyaluronic acid is naturally found in the extracellular matrix of human tissue. Topically applied hyaluronic acid forms an air permeable layer and penetrates into the dermis, thus boosting the elasticity and hydration of the skin. The protective breathable barrier on the skin locks in moisture which gives the skin a youthful appearance. The cuticle layer of the skin normally contains 10-20% water, however as we age it can drop to below 10%. Hyaluronic acid comes to the rescue with its unique ability to hold more than 1000 times its weight in water, which is a key factor in allowing the skin to retain more water. Amazingly, hyaluronic acid adjusts its moisture absorption based on the relative humidity in the air. It is the ideal ingredient in skin care products as it adjusts to the skins need for a moisturizing effect depending on the relative humidity of seasons and climate of an area. Hyaluronic acid also protects the epidermis by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated by ultra violet light which would normally cause sunspots.

Hydroxyethylcellulose- A plant-derived thickening agent typically used as a binding agent or emulsifier.

Hydroxyethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyethyl Cellulose is primarily used as a gelling and thickening agent in cosmetics, personal skin care, and hair care products. Derived from the organic compound cellulose, this non-ionic, water soluble polymer improves the effectiveness of cleaning and care products by helping them dissolve into water.

Jojoba Oil-Simmondsia Chinensis- (2) Emollient; moisturizer. Very high natural content of Vitamin E. Extremely skin nourishing. Lasts longer in natural state than most oils. Has been credited with skin healing. Provides rapid absorption. Non comedogenic. Mimics skinc natural sebum for superior uptake and absorption.  Preffered oil for acne treatment for many because it mimics the consistency of our own sebum. It has a light moisturizing feel and absorbs well into the skin. Most skin types tolerate jojoba well but will often experience a “purge” of toxins when they begin using it. Normally, this purge will end in a few weeks, revealing clear pores and revitalized skin. This oil is more suitable for oily skin types as it helps balance the production of excess oil.

Eicosenoic acid– 65-80%
Linoleic acid– 5%
Linolenic acid– 1%
Oleic acid– 5-15%
Comedogenic Rating– 2

Knotgrass Flavonoids-  First botanical active ingredient designed to fight infrared-induced skin aging (Infra’Aging™), a breakthrough concept in skin photo-protection and photo-aging.  In-vitro studies have shown that Knotgrass Flavonoids are able to protect fibers of papillary and reticular dermis. Makes the skin look firmer, stronger and more rejuvenated. Reduces the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines.

L-Carnosine-  L-Carnosine is a molecule composed of two amino acids, β-alanine and histidine. It is naturally abundant in brain and muscle tissues, but, although it was discovered in the year 1900, its function in the body is still unclear [1]. It might regulate the pH of muscle cells, neutralize metal ions or act as an antioxidant, and it gained a lot of interest recently as some studies show it might be used in treating cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and even cell ageing [2].

Carnosine has been shown to protect human skin cells against UV radiation. Together with some other forms of radiation, UV causes mutations in DNA and protein damage that often lead to cancer. To combat this, use of DNA-protecting molecules in skin cosmetics was proposed [3]. Carnosine falls among these molecules due to its antioxidant properties. In a study on human skin cells, carnosine was shown to reduce the oxidative damage caused by the UV on both DNA and proteins [4]. It is also able to activate synthesis of other naturally produced antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase [5]. Carnosine and related molecules have even stronger antioxidative capability than vitamin E [6]. However, it is advisable to apply these two antioxidants together, not only for synergistic protective effects – vitamin E improves the delivery of carnosine, resulting in higher levels of this molecule in target tissue [7].

In the recent years, commercial sunscreen products started to include carnosine, and the benefits of it have been proven in studies of UV-irradiated skin. Compared to traditional sunscreens, carnosine-containing creams successfully prevented UV damage and resulted in a significantly better state of both DNA and protein (less oxidative damage) after the irradiation [3]. In a trial on volunteers with sensitive skin, carnosine showed a protective effect on skin barrier function (reduced water loss and perceived dryness after 28 days of usage). Biochemical experiments suggest that the cream achieved this by improving the skin and neural cell response to UV radiation [8].

Carnosine is also able to reduce the effects of glycation. This process occurs naturally during ageing and produces damaged forms of proteins, called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Collagen is among the proteins most affected by this, and its glycation may be responsible for loss of elasticity or other negative consequences of skin ageing. Carnosine is a competitive target for glycation, thus protecting valuable proteins from it [9], [10]. Results from volunteer studies indicate that carnosine improves skin visual parameters, maintains firmness, reduces roughness, fine lines and oily appearance [7].

Another major application of carnosine in skin care is wound healing. A preparation with carnosine was shown to promote collagen synthesis, cell proliferation and migration, which result in faster wound closure [11]. Just like glycation protection, this benefit of carnosine is even more important for diabetes patients, as wound healing is impaired under this disease. Skin applications of carnosine have successfully activated healing in diabetic mice wounds [12]. Xerosis, another skin-affecting complication of diabetes, is also alleviated by applying a cream with carnosine, as this molecule has a hydrating effect [13]. This cream also increases skin thickness, blood circulation and quality of life in xerosis patients [14].

Key benefits Carnosine in skin care:

Glycation inhibitor and repair [1] [9]
Sun damage protection [3] [4]
Sun damage repair [3] [4]
Wound healing support [11] [12]
Moisturizing & hydration [13] [14]
Antioxidant [4] [5] [6]
Restore barrier function [8]

Licorice USDA Organic (Glycyrrhiza glabra)-  Organic extract of licorice roots (glycyrrhiza glabra). Contains 20% extract dissolved in glycerin. Does not contain preservatives. Widely used as skin lightening agent. Has also been shown to soothe the skin and have rejuvenating and anti-irritant effects.  Licorice is native to the Mediterranean region with striated stalks of about 1m tall. The extract contains glycyrrhetic acid and flavonoids that have soothing, regenerative & antioxidant properties. Licorice extract is used also as skin whitening agent. 

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate- Vitamin C- Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) is a vitamin C derivative that has better stability than absorbic acid. In DIY skin care MAP is often used for: UV protection and repair, collagen production, skin lightening and brightening, and as an anti-inflammatory. It is also a potent antioxidant.
Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate is a water soluble vitamin C derivative (L-Ascorbic acid mono-dihydrogen phosphate magnesium salt) with superior percutaneous absorption and stability. MAP is an excellent non-irritating skin whitening agent that inhibits skin cells to produce melanin and lightens age spots. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate is a potent anti-oxidant (protects skin from oxidation incl. UV rays) and it inhibits lipid-peroxidation. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate is an anti-inflammatory and it promotes collagen synthesis. MAP does not degrade in formulas containing water.
Skin-lightening products have become more popular around the world. With the increased number of lightening, whitening and brightening products, questions have arisen as to the safety of some skin-bleaching ingredients. The US Food and Drug Administration has proposed a ban on over-the-counter sales of cosmetic products containing hydroquinone.
The interest in lightening products remains strong, which means that there is a need for other ingredients that achieve the same lightening results. One emerging product in this realm is magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate is a water-soluble derivative of vitamin C, known to show some evidence of skin lightening abilities. The Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) and its Cosmetic Research product-tracking extension both show rapidly increasing numbers of new products featuring magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.

Marribium Extract, Organic : Organic extract from the Horehound plant (Marrubium Vulgare L., Lamiaceae) which belongs to the mint family. It has been found to skin soothing and anti-irritant properties. It is a valuable ingredient for irritated skin and after-sun care.

MSM-Methylsulfonylmethane- Methylsulfonylmethane has been present in the oceans, soil, and atmosphere of the Earth for eons. Organic sulfur (MSM) occurs naturally in the human body. It actually makes up 5% of the human body and is essential for every organ, cell, tissue, hormone, enzyme, antibody, and function found in the body. This whole food is a beautifying mineral, and contributes to hair, skin, nail, and joint renewal and health. Bio-available, MSM must be continually replenished for optimal youth, nutrition and health. A wonderful additive to have in EVERY product.

Micro Crystallized Water
- This water technology organizes the water molecules into highly structured crystalline forms that are able to penetrate fully into cells for total hydration.  Water naturally moves in a spiral and this is what keeps it structured and organized and able to hold infinite amounts of information. Our technology structures the water- powerful magnetic and infrared sources reduce the size of individual water clusters, creating Hexagonal Water for more efficient and rapid penetration into the cells of your body.
Increases the oxygen- . turbulent forces create a powerful and visible vortex, increasing the amount of oxygen in your drinking water up to 30%. Additional oxygen enters the cells by way of the water molecule itself. - and adds unique bio-available minerals- . a unique mineral core, comprised of tourmaline, coral calcium, zinc, lithium and others contribute to the structuring of water. The water is purified by commercial grade reverse osmosis processes beforehand, to remove structure breaking minerals/ions such as chlorine, chlorides, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, etc.).A select set of ionic minerals are known to enhance the construction of hexagonal water. These minerals occur in very small amounts and help organize the water molecules into tightly packed arrangements which serve to protect and enhance cellular health. Commonly occurring minerals can be grouped into structure making or structure breaking categories as listed below.
In order to ensure that the final product has the correct mineral balance, the water is first purified by high quality reverse osmosis system; the minerals are then combined in the vortexial water movement in the lab.
Calcium, sodium, zinc, iron, silver, copper and others help to convert water into hexagonal water while potassium, chloride, fluoride, aluminum, sulfide and others destroy the hexagonal structuring of water.
The process is similar to erasing unwanted information from a computer disc before placing new information on the disc.

Niacinamide- Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is water soluble vitamin B3 [5]. Vitamin B3 is essential for maintaining the overall health of skin. Vitamin B3 deficiency causes excessive dryness, skin lesions, and sensitivity to sunlight. Niacinamide is a precursor to coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD] and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADP]. These are important for many reactions in the body, including those that happen in the skin. NADPH, the hydrogenated form of NADP, is reported to decrease with age [2]. Treatment with niacinamide increases NADP in aged fibroblasts [collagen producing cells] [10]. Thus, niacinamide helps maintain normal amounts of these coenzymes in the skin. Niacinamide is suitable for topical use, as it penetrates easily [5]. It is water soluble and thus, easily used in formulations, and stable. It is tolerated by skin in high concentrations [10].

Niacinamide stimulates ceramide and fatty acid production, major components of skin that provide barrier function [12]. Topical niacinamide stabilizes skin barrier function and reduces moisture loss [5]. A clinical study using topical niacinamide showed it reduces symptoms of dry skin [12]. Topical niacinamide applied to aging skin improves skin surface structure and smoothes out wrinkles [5]. It also reduces skin yellowing, red facial blotches, and pore size by reducing sebum [oil] excretion [1].

Niacinamide also helps reduce hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation involves age spots that are clusters of melanin. Researchers believe niacinamide reduces hyperpigmentation by inhibiting the transfer of cell compartments called melanosomes that store melanin [7]. In clinical studies, topical 4% niacinamide inhibits pigmentation [7, 8]. A greater effect was seen when combined with 2% n-acetyl glucosamine, a hyaluronic acid precursor [3, 7]. Both have different mechanisms of reducing pigmentation, so, used together, they produce a better result.

Niacinamide has great potential as an anti-aging treatment. It has shown to increase keratin synthesis [5]. Keratin is an important structural protein in the skin and levels decrease with age. This reduces the structural soundness of skin and water binding capabilities. Overall, niacinamide stimulates cell growth, including collagen [5]. Collagen is another important structural component of the skin that helps maintain elasticity and plays a role in wound healing. Niacinamide is also a cofactor in hyaluronic acid synthesis [9]. Hyaluronic acid is important for retaining moisture in the skin and protecting barrier function. Levels are known to decrease with age, contributing to wrinkle formation. Thus, increasing hyaluronic acid improves skin elasticity and smoothness. An in vitro study shows 4% niacinamide increases hyaluronic acid. Women using a 2% NAG and 4% niacinamide combined showed improved fine lines and wrinkles, especially under the eyes [9]. This shows the anti-aging effects of niacinamide are best when combined with n-acetyl glucosamine.

It also has anti-inflammatory effects [5]. A clinical study using niacinamide showed reduced rosacea symptoms [4]. It also improved facial skin barrier. In a clinical study, niacinamide also reduced immune cell infiltration that promotes inflammation [8]. Topical 4% niacinamide increased cell growth and helped heal skin lesions [6]. It also reduced acne similar to 1% clindamycin, a common topical antibiotic acne treatment [11]. Niacinamide may be a better alternative to clindamycin, as bacteria involved in acne are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics.
Niacinamide also has anti-oxidant effects by scavenging free radicals [10]. In an in vitro study, niacinamide helped repair DNA damage due to UV exposure [13]. Overall, niacinamide increases the skin’s capacity to protect itself from damaging agents.

Key benefits of Niacinamide in skin care:

Treat hyperpigmentation [3] [7] [8]
Lightening and brightening [3] [7] [8]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [9]
Anti-inflammatory [5] [6] [8]
Anti-oxidant [10] [13]
Anti-acne [1] [5] [11]
Moisturizing and hydration [2] [5] [12]
Restore barrier function [2] [5] [12]
Wound healing support [5] [6]
Increase skin elasticity [5] [9]
Oil/sebum control [2]
Pore refinement [2]
Sun damage repair [13]
Sun damage protection [10]
Stimulate collagen production [5]
Stimulate HA production [9]


Glucan (β-glucans) are non-starch polysaccharides composed of glucose molecules in long linear glucose polymers with mixed β-(1→4) and β-(1→3) links with an approximate distribution of 70% to 30%. The molecular weight of β-glucan varies between 50 and 3000 kDa [3]. Glucans are present in fungi, plants, algae and bacteria [1]. β-glucan is a major component of water soluble cereal fibre and an important part of oat dietary fibre. In oat grains β-glucans are located throughout the starchy endosperm. They are concentrated in the bran [3]. One major source of β- glucan is the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, β-glucans primarily exist in the (1→3)-β-linked backbone form with (1→6)-β-branches [1],[2].
 
Oat Beta Glucan- Beta glucans mechanisms of action involve them being recognized as non-self-molecules, so the immune system is stimulated by their presence [1]. Human receptors allow the β-glucans to interact with immune cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. These interactions activate several intracellular pathways that are responsible for the immunopharmacological properties of β-glucan [4].
 
A recent finding show that oat beta-glucan may be capable of penetrating deep into the skin and delivering significant skin benefits, indicated that the skin care actions of oat beta-glucan such as anti-radiation, anti-wrinkle, anti-aging were most likely attributed to its long-lasting and film- forming property, activation of immune cells, and stimulation of deposition of collagen. Penetration studies for oat beta-glucan, performed on human abdominal skin used a single application of 0.5% beta-glucan solution at a dose of 5 mg per cm2. The results showed that beta-glucan, despite its large molecular size, is able to enter the stratum corneum and epidermis and penetrate deep into the dermis. Their experiment showed that 28% of the applied oat beta-glucan entered the skin and around 4% reached the dermis (i.e. the layer where wrinkles form) after 8 hours of treatment with 0.5% beta-glucan solution [5].
 
Oat has a long history of safe use to provide fast, temporary relief of the itching, redness, and pain associated with many minor skin irritations such as poison ivy/oak/sumac, insect bites, and allergy [6].  In the cosmetic application of beta-glucan, consumers have described various benefits including excellent, sustained moisturization properties together with an improved, smoother appearance of the skin. After the entery to skin, oat beta-glucan forms a thin film above the stratum corneum and epidermis so that a promoted moisturization is achieved [7].
 
The utility of oat beta-glucan in anti-radiation, anti-wrinkle, anti-aging has been fairly well established. 4% of β-glucan that is able to reach the dermis, activates immune cells, mainly macrophage, through an interaction between glucan and glucan receptors on the surface of macrophage. This triggers several indirect, cytokine-mediated reactions with fibroblasts that stimulate collagen synthesis. As a result of promoted collagen synthesis, the negative effect of radiation is minimized, elasticity of the skin is enhanced, wrinkle is reduced and aging process is largely delayed [7],[8]. A clinical study of 27 subjects was performed to evaluate the effects of beta-glucan on facial fine-lines and wrinkles. After 8 weeks of treatment, digital image analysis of silicone replicas indicated a significant reduction of wrinkle depth and height, and overall roughness [5].
 
It has been reported that topical glucan administration enhances wound healing by increasing macrophage infiltration into the wound milieu, stimulating tissue granulation, collagen deposition, and re-epithelialization, together with increasing the tensile strength of the recovered wound [9],[10]. These properties are of special advantage in injured diabetic people, who have increased susceptibility to infection, frequent occurrence of ulcers and delayed wound healing which is in diabetic organism caused by neuropathy, vascular changes and impaired cellular response to injury [11]. A topical combination of β-glucan and an antibiotic as an adjuvant for wound-healing applications seems to be working, which improves epithelialization. One of the topical glucan applications is treatment of decubitus wounds [12].
 
β-Glucan was recently applied in healing of burns and topical damages. Glucan treated wounds showed a higher number of macrophages in the early, inflammatory stage of repair. Its topical application also stimulates the formation of granulomas, collagen deponing and reepithelialization, and at the same time it increases the elasticity of treated wound [5],[9].
 
Moreover, β-glucans have radio-protective effects, antioxidant properties and free radicals scavenging capabilities [13],[14]. Because it is capable of Langerhans cells activations and free- radical scavenging effect, β-glucan could be applied as a photoprotective agent in sunscreens. Its application resulted in the reduction of UV-induced erythema and preservation of the amount of Langerhans cells in the epidermis. Commercial sunscreens prevent burns, but they can not ensure the adequate prevention from several skin cancers, including melanoma. UV-rays cause the loss of Langerhans cells even when the skin is already tanned. In that way, its immunological function is diminished. A combination of a sunscreen and glucan is suggested, because glucan added to sunscreens helps in preservation of Langerhans cells [12].
Todorov, G., Oat beta-glucan's anti-wrinkle promise. smartskincare
"preliminary research indicates that a biopolymer from oat called beta-glucan may be capable of both penetrating deep into the skin and delivering significant skin benefits. Beta-glucan is a linear polymer consisting of glucose molecules linked together in a particular fashion. It has a long history of safe use in skin care and dermatology as a long-lasting, film-forming moisturizer. It has also been shown to work as anti-irritant and to speed up healing of shallow abrasions and partial thickness burns. Beta-glucan appears to enhance wound healing through several mechanisms including the stimulation of collagen deposition, activation of immune cells and so forth." Todorov, G., Oat beta-glucan's anti-wrinkle promise. smartskincare

 Key benefits of Oat Beta Glucan (Beta 1-3, 1-4) in skin care:

anti-inflammatory [1] [4] [5] [9]
reduce fine lines and wrinkles [5] [7] [8]
wound healing suport [9] [10] [11] [12]
moisturizing and hydration [7]
increase skin elasticity [5] [7] [8] [9]
sun damage protection [12]
sun damage repair [5] [9]
antioxidant [13] [14]
scar care [9] [10]
stimulate collagen production [8] [9] [10]

Oat Seed (Avena sativa)- Anti-depressant, antispasmodic, demulcent, nervine, nutritive, stimulant, tonic. Oats are a very soothing herb to use in the case of skin irritations. When used in a bath it treats itchy skin, rashes and insect bites. Oats have been used in facial and body scrubs, soaps and lotions for years, and have been proven to help heal acne. 

Organic Botanical Infusion- I Label It has a basic menu of key ingredients that will be found in almost every formulation coming out of our laboratory.
  Organic Aloe Vera. This is a substance of perpetual youth and rapid healing. Naturally occurring MSM in the aloe vera leaf lends to this plants rejuvenating properties. Natural plant steroids and salicylic acid are delivered in the gel of aloe vera, and skin is youthened and nourished, as well as soothed in the summer heat. Great for sun burns, toning, shrinking of pores, and a great source of silicon for the skin to recreate itself in the most beautiful manner possible. 

  Organic Gotu Kola- . In ancient China, Gotu Kola was the principle ingredient in a famous elixir called Fo Ti Tieng, a brew that had an astounding reputation as Fountain of Youth. Gotu Kola works specifically to stimulate the production of collagen in the skin, as well as the manufacture of new skin cells.  Gotu Kola greatly enhances the integrity and vascularization of connective tissue and skin, hastens wound healing, improves elasticity and rejuvenates blood vessels for improved circulation to the skin.

  Organic Horsetail. Named for its resemblance to the tassle on a mares nether parts, there is no other source of silica more concentrated than Horsetail. Not only is silica a mojor building block for hair, skin, and nails, but Silica is the age old secret to beauty. Hair, nails, and skin all thrive on silica, drinking it up like water in a desert. The mineral silicon possesses many hidden properties, one of which is its ability to be transformed into

  Organic Dandelion
- .. Considered by most to be a pesky weed, As a wild plant that has not been cultivated like most others, dandelion retains its high mineral content, and passes this onto us in a highly bioavailable form. Having originated in Greece, its botanical name comes from the Greek words disorder and remedy.  Dandelion contains chemicals called eudesmanolides, which are found in no other herb. Other components include sterols, flavonoids, and mucilage. These are all highly revered antioxidants, preventing the degeneration of skin cells and DNA. A key to anti-ageing is preventing free radical damage.

 Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 peptides liposome emulsion- The combination of the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7  has been shown to help repair UV  induced skin damage (sun damage) and reverse signs of chronological ageing.

A 2011 (company sponsored) In vivo study demonstrated the positive matrix reinforcing effect the combination of the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7. A significant improvement corresponding to a gain in age of 1.8 years was visible in just one month, and confirmed after 2 months: the photo-induced ageing was then delayed by 5.5 years.

Another analysis of the papillary dermis showed that the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 helped reduce the fiber fragmentation and supported the reconstruction of the papillary dermal fibre network.

This test confirmed the repairing effects of the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7: promotion of wrinkle smoothing and improvement of skin tone and elasticity.

A 2013 (company sponsored) proved that the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 significantly stimulated synthesis of Collagen-I, -IV, -VII, -XVII and Nidogen-I proteins.

While these proteins usually decrease with age, the two peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 rejuvenated the dermal structure and tended to make ageing skin behave like young skin.

Read more here: 2011 and 2013 Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 tests and  palmitoyl oligopeptide & palmitoyl-tetrapeptide-7 : Back to the future of anti-aging skin care
 
About Palmitoyl Oligopeptide in Skin Care

Palmitoyl Oligopeptide is an amino-peptide that when added to a culture of fibroblasts (key skin cells), stimulates collagen, elastin and glucosaminoglycans production. These are the key components of healthy-looking skin.

Clinically proven to reduce wrinkle depth by increasing hyaluronic acid and collagen production, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide is a synthetic protein that is a fragment of collagen combined with palmitic acid to make it more lipophillic, to improve its stability and to enhance its affinity towards human skin.

As with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, one could look at Palmitoyl Oligopeptide as a man-made precursor to collagen. Palmitoyl Oligopeptide was developed through research to identify a substance that would behave similarly to retinoic acid but without its drawbacks, especially in regards to synthesizing collagen.

The reported results of topical application of Palmitoyl Oligopeptide are as follows: 
In vitro:
Increases collagen production by the fibroblasts by as much as 350%.
Increases hyaluronic acid production by the fibroblasts by as much as 146%.
In vivo: The following statistics were gathered using image analysis of volunteers who used crèmes containing a 3% concentration of Palmitoyl Oligopeptide for 28 days.
Surface roughness -- Reduced 17%
Mean depth of wrinkles -- Reduced 23%
Depth of main wrinkle -- Reduced 39%
Skin thickness -- Increased 4%. The increase in skin thickness was considered especially notable and contrasts with the 6% reduction of the skin thickness that occurs after 10 years of aging.

Palmitoyl Oligopeptide is a potent active cosmetic ingredient without the adverse effects (including irritation, dehydration or long-term toxicity and instability) characteristic of retinoids. 

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 has been clinically proven to suppress the body's production of interleukins (IL6), the chemical messengers that trigger inflammation, the first step in the aging cascade.

Inflammation is a function of immunity and is a protective response to injury or destruction of tissue. This is the body's way of walling off the injurious agent and the injured tissue. Under normal circumstances, very little IL6 is secreted and its secretion is strictly controlled. However, as we age this regulation system develops defects, and significant levels of IL6 appear in the plasma even when there is no inflammatory stimulus. This results in high levels of inflammatory proteins in the tissues and a loss of healing potential.

At concentrations from 10 ppm, Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 induces a marked reduction in the secretion of the cytokine IL6. This reduction is progressive and depends on the concentration of the peptide: baseline secretion may be inhibited by up to 40%.

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 reduced levels of IL6 after cells were exposed to UV radiation by up to 86% even though IL6 had been increased by about 20 fold by the UV. These results show that Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is able to affect baseline levels of IL6 as well as modulate the effects of UV-stimulated over-production of IL6.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 is a molecule that can restore cytokine equilibrium, which characterizes youthful skin. 

Peptide Liposome Emulsion

Palmitoyl oligopeptide (PAL GHK) 260ppm  
Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 ppm (PAL GQPR) 140ppm
Twice the strength of Matrixyl 3000

Key benefits of the peptides Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 liposome emulsion in skin care:

reduce fine lines and wrinkles
stimulate HA production
glycation inhibitor and repair
increase skin elasticity
moisturizing and hydration
stimulate collagen production
sun damage repair

Panthenol- Vitamin B5- Panthenol is a non-irritating form of Vitamin B that is usually derived from plants. When this natural, hydrating vitamin is applied externally, it penetrates into lower skin layers, gets absorbed into your skin cells and turns into pantothenic acid (commonly known as Vitamin B5). Because panthenol is absorbed deeply into the skin, it adds essential moisture and has a desirable plumping effect.
Panthenol, with its humectant-like properties, penetrates into layers beneath the surface of your skin so it can be used to treat a myriad of minor skin disorders and irritations. This natural substance is safe to use on your skin and can even be administered internally. In 1984, panthenol was included in the list of over the counter drugs published by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In 1987, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) concluded that panthenol was safe to use in cosmetics as a humectant, emollient and moisturizer.
Over the past twenty years, panthenol has been effectively used to treat sunburns, irritations, dryness and other minor skin disorders. This non-toxic vitamin has incredible absorption properties and helps to diminish wrinkles by infusing moisture into the deeper layers of your skin. In 1995, a study conducted by LH Leung also suggested panthenol as an alternative treatment for acne because it counteracts bacteria. Panthenol can be found in a variety of skin care products developed to treat dry, normal, combination and acne-prone skin.
Using panthenol in your skin will help to keep it smooth by helping to maintain its natural moisture balance and counteracting surface bacteria. Panthenol reduces inflammation, soothes irritation and initiates the rebuilding of your skin. The healing properties of this vitamin have also been proven to be beneficial for stronger hair and nails.
The regular use of moisturizers, toners, shampoos and conditioners that include panthenol naturally ensure a softer, more attractive appearance everyday.

Pumice- Abrasive; exfoliant; from earth/rock

POTASSIUM SORBATE: Potassium sorbate is a potassium salt of sorbic acid, a naturally occurring antimicrobial compound; used as a preservative.

Rice Bran Beads-  Natural exfoliating scrub made of finely granulated rice bran wax. The granules are round-shaped, non-scratchy balls of about 500µm diameter.   Excellent natural non-scratchy & gentle exfoliant. Due to its perfect ball-shaped form it is ideal also for sensitive skin. 

ROSEHIP OIL
-. Oil extracted from the fruit of rose plants [known as rosehips] contains compounds with many therapeutic uses. Rosehip oil is high in fatty acids, including linoleic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids. Fatty acids are known to moisturize and restore skin barrier function. The oil also contains trans-retinoic acid, a precursor of vitamin A, which is known to help restore skin tissue. The oil is widely known to reduce the appearance of scars by reducing their profile, decreasing hyperpigmentation, and increasing skin elasticity. It can also reduce the effects of premature aging and sun damage. Rosehip oil has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

Key benefits of Rosehip oil in skin care:

Anti-inflammatory [1, 2, 6, 10, 11]
Scar care [3, 4, 5, 9, 14]
Restore barrier function [3, 4]
Sun damage repair [4, 5]
Treat hyperpigmentation [5, 9]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [5]
Wrinkle relaxer [5]
Increase skin elasticity [5]
stimulate collagen production [10][14]
Moisturizing and hydration [4]

Linoleic acid– 44%
Oleic acid– 14%
Comedogenic Rating– 1

It’s amazing for reversing hyperpigmentation, the signs of aging, sun damage, stretch marks, and scars. Its high anti-oxidant content improves texture and revitalizes the skin. Suitable for oily skin types.

Safflower Oil – (0-0) Safflower is a plant mainly grown for the oil in its seeds. This oil contains the highest amount [70%] of linoleic oil of any plant oil. Linoleic acid is known to benefit the skin in many ways. It moisturizes and hydrates the skin, correcting fatty acid deficiencies that cause dry, itchy skin. Due to the high amount of linoleic acid, safflower oil can be used to heal wounds, burns, and acne. Safflower oil also contains oleic acid [15%]. Oleic and linoleic acids combined can be used to reduce the appearance of scars and increase collagen production.

Key benefits of Safflower seed oil:

Moisturizing and hydration [1, 3, 5, 8, 9]
restore barrier function [1, 3, 5, 8, 9]
Wound healing support [1, 2, 5]
Sun damage prevention [10]
Sun damage repair [8]
Anti-acne [8]
Anti-inflammatory [4]
Stimulate collagen production [6]
Scar care [2]

Linoleic acid– 70-80%
Oleic acid– 10-20%
Comedogenic Rating– 0 (high linoleic only)

 has a silky feel on the skin and is highly moisturizing. It’s high linoleic acid. It will help break up blackheads and other impurities in the skin. It absorbs easily and doesn’t leave a greasy residue.

Salicylic acid-  is one of the most commonly used active ingredients in cosmetics, including many over-the-counter products. The compound originates from willow tree [Salix] bark [2, 4]. Salicylic acid is a synthetic form of the major bioactive compound in willow tree bark, salicin. The two belong to the same general group, salicylates, but have varying functions. Salicylic acid is generally regarded as a β-hydroxy acid, although some believe this is incorrect due to its chemical structure and function [8]. It is considered to exist in a hydroxy acid group separate from α and β-hydroxy acids. Salicylic acid was first commercially produced in the 1800’s and used to treat fever and pain [5]. Currently, it is one of the most commonly used and widely available hydroxy acids in dermatology.

Salicylic acid has been used to treat acne for over 100 years [10]. It is commonly used in amounts up to 2% for daily use. Salicylic acid is lipid soluble, meaning it mixes well with oily substances. This characteristic allows it to penetrate deep into pores and reduce trapped sebum [oil] [2, 4]. This prevents the formation of blemishes caused by dirt and oil becoming trapped under the skin. Because of its lipid solubility, salicylic acid is particularly useful for oily skin. It is less irritating than benzoyl peroxide, another commonly used acne treatment [4]. In addition to low amounts for daily use, salicylic can also be used in high amounts [30%] as a peel to treat acne [6, 9]. Highly concentrated salicylic acid has been shown to produce little irritation [4]. Salicylic acid also has anti-inflammatory effects useful for the treatment of acne [2]. This active ingredient also has anti-bacterial effects [8, 10]. It is thought to decrease the ability of bacteria to survive and replicate [8]. This can help treat acne.

Salicylic acid is described as a keratolytic agent. This means it is capable of sloughing of the outer layer of skin, removing dry, scaly skin [10]. It does this by digesting proteins in the outermost layer of the skin. This increases cell turnover, meaning dead skin cells are discarded to make room for new skin. Cell turnover decreases with aging, but salicylic acid can increase cell replication, helping to decrease signs of skin aging [2]. Studies show that skin treated with salicylic acid is smoother [6]. The keratolytic action of salicylic acid makes it useful for treating warts and calluses [5]. It can also help treat hyperpigmentation, a common sign of photoaging. Peels containing 30% salicylic acid have been used to treat pigmentation, decrease roughness, and reduce fine lines [2, 7]. Salicylic acid is useful to prevent sun damage and can be used in addition to conventional sunscreen. It is thought to have a UV filter effect [8]. Skin treated with salicylic acid before UV exposure had decreased redness [8]. In addition to preventing redness due to sun exposure, salicylic acid can help treat rosacea [2].

Salicylic acid also has anti-inflammatory effects [1, 4]. The common medication aspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is converted to salicylic acid upon absorption where it decreases pain and inflammation. Salicylic acid inhibits the enzyme COX-2 that produces prostaglandins, inflammatory mediators [1]. By decreasing inflammation, salicylic acid can help treat inflammatory skin conditions, such as psoriasis [3]. It has also been shown to enhance penetration of topical drugs, such as corticosteroids [3].

Key benefits of Salicylic acid in skin care:

Anti-acne [2] [4] [6] [9] [10]
Anti blackheads [2] [4]
Anti-inflammatory [1] [3] [4] [5]
Exfoliator [2] [6] [10]
Oil/sebum control [2] [4]
Pore refinement [2] [4]
Increase skin cell turnover [2] [5] [6] [10]
Treat hyperpigmentation [2] [7]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [2] [7]
Anti-bacterial [8] [10]
Sun damage protection [8]
Sun damage repair [7] [8]

Skin Renewal Complex-  Complex of natural active ingredients consisting of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans (500-2000 daltons) and polysaccharides from marine sources. Contains yeast extract, algae extract, glucosamine HCI, and urea. Skin renewal booster and calming skin exfoliator. Makes the skin look firmer, less sagging, and rejuvenated. Studies found that the skin looks similar as with treatment of alpha-hydroxy acids but without irritation. Results showed an improvement in skin firmness by 55%, skin clarity by 35%, a 55% reduction in the appearance of fine lines & wrinkles and a 25% reduction in sagging. Unlike alpha-hydroxy acids and retinol, SkinRenewal Complex has a calming effect on the skin.

Silk Protein Amino Acid Blend (Sodium L-Pyrrolidone Carboxylate, Sodium Lactate, LArginine, L-Aspartic Acid, L-Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid, Glycine, L-Alanine, L-Serine, L-Valine, L-Proline, L-threonine, L-Isoleucine, L-Histidine, L-Phenylalanine)-

Our silk amino acids are cultivated in a lab by wage earning free and self-empowered human beings rather than by enslaved disempowered and oppressed silk worms. In our world, beauty is not cruel.

Amino acids are the basis for all living tissue on Earth. The skin is a living, breathing organ and needs an abundant supply of amino acids to function properly. These natural miracles are the very building blocks needed for the creation of important skin proteins like collagen and elastin. Without amino acids the skin simply cannot function properly.
These selected amino acids are essential to healthy skin. These are exactly the same amino acids found in collagen and elastin. Each amino acid is made from plant sources and is painstakingly purified. These amino acids are then carefully blended to match the optimum amino acid composition in collagen. By utilizing the unique delivery system in this amino acid blend, the skin now has available the amino acids necessary to beautify and repair itself on a daily basis.
Amino acids are the main moisture retention factors in human skin. Topical application of amino acids has shown to dramatically increase moisture content while decreasing visible lines. In addition, amino acids help in the production of collagen and elastin, regulate sebaceous gland activity and decrease discoloration.
Free radicals are unbalanced molecules caused by the sun, environment and pollution. These unbalanced molecules randomly bounce around inside skin cells and cause damage to important cellular tissues including DNA structures. Amino acids are natural free radical scavenges that seek and neutralize free radicals to help prevent the damage done by them.
L-Proline: Important in maintaining radiant and youthful skin
L-Histidine: Protects the body from radiation and sun damage. Antioxidant, which neutralizes free radicals helping to prevent skin cell damage.
L-Arginine: Speeds the healing of skin cell damage and wounds.
L-Lysine: Skin conditioning agent. Involved in cellular and tissue repair. Essential amino acid needed for collagen production.
L-Glycine: Repairs damaged tissue and promotes healing.
L-Isoleucine: Branched chain amino acid. Important in protein synthesis and tissue repair.
L-Tyrosine: A building block of protein used to help the moisturizing product penetrate the skin. Converted by skin cells into melanin that protects against harmful effects of UV light.
L-Leucine: Branched chain amino acid. Protects against muscle protein breakdown.
L-Glutamine: Helps prevent muscle and tissue breakdown.
L-Valine: Branched chain amino acid. Important for muscular and tissue strength.
L-Threonine: Important for the formation of collagen and elastin.
L-Methionine: Neutralizes free radicals and fights aging of the skin.
L-Alanine: Important in protein synthesis.
L-Acetyl Tyrosine: Highly bio-available form of L-Tyrosine, a building block of protein.
L-Aspartic Acid: Involved in building skin cell DNA (genetic structure in the nucleolus).
L-Serine: Important in formation of cell membranes.
L-Phenylalanine: Building blocks for various proteins. It can be converted to L-Tyrosine.


Silymarin- is a generic name for the entire group of flavonolignans principles that can be only found in the seeds of silybum marianum (commonly known as milk thistle). Silymarin consists of 3 isomers: silibinin - primary flavonolignan, silidianin and silicristin [1]. Seeds of Silybum marianum have been used for more than 2000 years to treat liver and gallbladder disorders and to protect the liver against poisoning from chemical and environmental toxins. Silymarin is a consecrated hepatoprotector and antioxidant. More recently, due to the breakthroughs in biochemistry and pharmacology a whole new perspective spectrum of healthcare applications such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, cardio and neuro protective, hypocholesterolemic and others is developing [2]. Silymarin has very low toxicity and inexistent adverse reactions, making it suitable for human consumption and use [3]
 
The main focus in silymarin effects is based on its antioxidant properties. As any bioflavonoid silymarin scavenges free radicals that can damage cells exposed to toxins. Silymarin has been said to be at least ten times more potent in antioxidant activity than vitamin E [4]. One of the silymarin non-flavonolignan isomer, taxifolin, is also known to have powerful antioxidant properties, thus enhancing the overall preventive and curative effects [5]. Numerous studies focused on silymarin emphasized categorical benefits as an anti-hepatic cancer by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells [6]. Double blind, randomized, prospective tests in patients with liver cirrhosis showed a considerably higher survival rate in the silymarin treated group [7]. Recent studies highlighted that the anti-toxic effect of the silymarin is not based on fighting the toxin as supposed but by having an inhibitory action trough binding to cell membranes and therefore inhibit toxin penetration of the cell membrane [8].
 
Due to good skin penetration of its flavonolignans - especially silibinin – silymarin is the ideal candidate for topical skin care [9]. Multiple studies were conducted, confirming silymarin increased efficiency in UV protection and skin cancer prevention and treatment. Skin exposure to solar UV radiation induces a number of skin disorders, including erythema, edema, immune suppression, photoaging, melanogenesis and skin cancers. Both UVA and UVB radiation activate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which create oxidative stress in skin cells and play an essential role in initiation and proliferation of skin aging and carcinogenesis. Because of its potent antioxidant activity and recognized potential as an antiphotodamage and anticarcinogenic agent, the extract of Silybum marianum is suitable for inclusion in topical skin care products and sunscreen as active ingredient [10] [11].

Topical application of silymarin prior to UVB irradiation resulted in a substantial protection against photocarcinogenesis. This effect of silymarin is due to inhibition of several different events associated with UVB-induced tumor initiation and tumor promotion. In studies assessing the protection against UVB radiation -induced tumor initiation, silymarin showed considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and tumor volume [12] [13]. Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumours via modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis, making it a perfect candidate for the treatment in several types of epithelial cancer in humans [13], [14].
 
Several studies with statistical relevant results were conducted on silymarin effects in reducing Rosacea [10] [15] and Melasma [16], both skin conditions with facial manifestations. In Rosacea, silymarin action is multicentric and multiphase because of the direct modulating action on cytokines and angiokines normally involved and up-regulated in the case of such skin condition [15], while in melasma silymarin decreased the expression of tyrosinase protein inhibiting the melanin production [16]. Silymarin effects in other skin conditions such as psoriasis, vitiligo [15] and acne [17] are currently investigated showing promising outcomes. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of silymarin proved to be efficient in wound management. Silymarin generated an increased fibroblast proliferation, collagen bundle synthesis and hair follicle population and consequently wound closure [19] and also modulated the inflammatory processes and total cellularity, improving the cellular and tissue maturity and increasing collagen and GAG production thus facilitating faster and better healing [20].

Key benefits of Silymarin in skin care:

Antioxidant [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]
Sun damage protection [10] [11]
Sun damage repair [12] [13]
Anti-acne [10] [15]  [17]
Anti-inflammatory [19] [20]
Lightening and brightening [16]
Treat hyperpigmentation [16]
Reduce Rosacea [10] [15]

Sodium Benzoate, Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications by Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments (EWG)

Spirulina-Spirulina Maxima- Botanical; stimulant. Full of vitamins and minerals, it is said to have a hydrating effect on the surface layers of the skin. It has also been represented that Spirulina proteins contribute to tissue regeneration of the skin.

Sunflower Lecithin

Sunflower Oil-Helianthus Annuus- Carrier; An oil wealthy in Oleic acids with high amounts of Vitamins A, D, and E, also has beneficial amounts of lecithin, and unsaturated fatty acids. Deeply nourishing and conditioning for the skin and it is highly recommended for recipes designed to treat dry, weathered, aged, and damaged skin. Our line of organic Sunflower oil has a pleasant scent and is easily absorbed and applied.
High in Linolenic acid.  Most skin types resond well to sunflower oil as it helps keep your skin balanced and moisturized while fighting acne causing bacteria. It’s also great at fighting the signs of aging!

Linoleic acid– 59%
Linolenic acid– 0.5%
Oleic acid– 30%
Comedogenic Rating– 0-2

Sclerotium gum-  is an active ingredient obtained through fermentation from hardened fungal masses of various types of fungi. The most common source is a parasitic fungus named Sclerotium rolfsii.  Due to its efficiency as a thickening agent, emulsifier and stabilizer, sclerotium gum is used in numerous applications in the industrial, food and pharmaceutical fields. Recent research showed that sclerotium gum is a compound perfectly suitable for topical delivery of pharmaceuticals and natural active ingredients. Besides providing the right viscosity and stability of the topical preparation, the gum also has multiple benefits for the skin. Sclerotium gum is high in polysaccharides, especially beta glucans, namely scleroglucan, and has multiple benefits for the skin: it protects the lipid barrier, prevents water loss, increases moisturization, protects and repair damaged skin, enhances the local immune response and increases collagen production and deposits.

Key benefits of Sclerotium Gum in skin care:

moisturizing and hydration [9][12][13]
anti-inflammatory [6] [10]
wound healing support [6] [10]
sun damage protection [10]
sun damage repair [10]
stimulate collagen production[11]
Anti-bacterial [11]
Antioxidant [10]
Restore barrier function [9][12][13]

Squalane (1) Squalane is a form of squalene, a natural component of sebum [oil] that acts as a barrier for the skin. It is structurally similar to many natural compounds that benefit the skin, such as β-carotene, and vitamins A, D, E, and K. Squalane’s most noted function is as an anti-oxidant. It depletes the amount of free radicals from UV rays that can cause damage to the skin. Squalane also moisturizes and hydrates, decreasing dryness, itching, and redness. With these characteristics, it restores barrier function to the skin. It can act as a detoxifier and may play a role in acne treatment. Squalane is also used to increase the absorption of preparations into the skin.

Key benefits of Squalane Olive Oil in skin care:

Anti-oxidant [1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13]
Moisturizing and hydration [1, 2, 3, 6, 10]
Sun damage protection [6, 7, 10]
Increases skin elasticity [3, 6]
Anti-bacterial [6]
Anti-androgenic alopecia [8]
Restore barrier function [3]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [4]
Squalane Olive Oil is highly stable against oxidation.

Highly moisturizing emollient that has high resistance to oxidation and high affinity to skin and its natural lipids. Excellent skin-penetrating qualities and medium spreading qualities. Non-irritating, non- allergenic, hypo-comedogenic.  100% plant-based emollient derived from plant sugars (sugar cane). Squalane occurs naturally in the lipidic layers of the skin and prevents moisture loss while restoring the skin's suppleness and flexibility. Squalane is highly resistant to oxidation and has a high affinity to skin cells due to its skin-identical structure. Clear liquid, imperceptible odor.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)- Emmenagogue, aromatic stimulant, cholagogue, alterative, analgesic, astringent, antiseptic. Turmeric is an ingredient in Indian curry powders because it helps promote good digestion and assimilation. It regulates menses, balances hormones, and lessens PMS symptoms. Turmeric also promotes blood circulation and is an effective anti-inflammatory, making it particularly useful as an external oil or liniment for treating bruises, injuries, and other inflammations.

Vitamin C- Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate & tetrahexyldecyl acorbate-  Highly stable, oil-soluble vitamin C ester. Has excellent skin penetration and as a result offers increased cell protection against UV-B. The skin cell viability is increased up to 30% when compared with l-ascorbic acid. Can improve appearance of aged and fragile skin. Widely used as add-on ingredient in skin-lightening products to correct hyperpigmentation and age spots. Antioxidant effect can be increased by combining L-ascorbic acid with L-ascorbyl palmitate and/or vitamin E. The cutting edge of skin care research shows that aging skin is the result of more than just years on the calendar. Exposure to environmental elements like sunlight, smoke, and air pollution causes photoaging in skin. Not only does this lead to the formation of lines, wrinkles, and pigmentation - it can lead to more serious skin conditions, including skin cancer. A comprehensive Vitamin C program can help prevent photoaging and the onset of more serious skin conditions. Topical vitamin C has now been shown to provide up to eight times the skins natural protection from UV damage. Sunscreens are also an important part of the prevention process, although they cannot do it alone. Vitamin C protects your skin from the sun in ways that sunscreens cant. When used together, Vitamin C and sunscreens provide almost complete photoprotection - preventing photoaging, preventing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and promoting vibrant skin health.
Oxidative damage shows up on our faces in the form of sun spots, discoloration, wrinkles, sagging, and loss of elasticity and glow. Vitamin C prevents oxidative damage by neutralizing oxygen-free radicals before they can attack the body. Some Vitamin C is available to the body by oral ingestion, but many individuals do not achieve even the minimum daily requirement through diet or supplements. Furthermore, Vitamin C cannot be stored in the body, and so must be reintroduced into the body AND skin on a daily basis. scientists and formulators have refined ways to stabilize and deliver additional amounts of key Vitamin C into the skin. Continued research has demonstrated that properly formulated vitamin C combinations work synergistically to provide enhanced benefit. Recent studies show that topical application of optimized Vitamin C combinations can provide up to eight-fold antioxidant protection, ninety-six percent reduction of sunburn cells, and prevent the formation of free radicals in UV irradiated skin (sun exposed skin).
Our vitamin C formulations are superior to most of the C products on the market- .due to our use of a uniquely stabilized vitamin C called Stay C 50.
Stay C 50 is water soluble and is a salt form. It is easily bioconverted to Vitamin C by skin enzymes. Ascorbyl palmitate is the more commonly used form of vitamin C in skin care formulations today. It is more stable, meaning that it will not yellow the product base as quickly. The reason that we do not use ascorbyl palmitate is that it is not as easily converted to Vitamin C in the skin- .it remains in the ester form for a longer period of time. This is not optimal as we want the skin to bioconvert the provitamin form and take up the C right away! What good will a vitamin C concentrate do for your complexion and skin cells if it cannot actually penetrate into the skin? So what we are saying here is that the more commonly used ascorbyl palmitate is more stable but less bioavailable to the skin. We use Stay C 50 at concentrations that may turn the base a light cream color over time. That is because vitamin C is active- all vitamins are active and sensitive to light. The main reason the palmitate version was created was to avoid the yellowing in formulation but really had nothing to do with the skin efficacy. We are only interested in efficacy, and if we have to watch or product turn a light yellow in order to have the best skin care available, well, so be it!!
Vitamin-C is necessary for the production of collagen, the major structural protein of the skin and although visible differences will not be seen for approximately two months, you may notice a visible difference in skin texture, color and tone in as early as a few days. Topical Vitamin-C products will start to be absorbed by the skin almost immediately. Because these vitamin-C products were developed as a preventative treatment with the goal of protecting the skin from further environmental damage, the skin will benefit the moment the vitamin-C is applied. The appearance of fine lines and wrinkles will become less noticeable within two to six months. Individual results will vary, depending upon the condition of the skin at the time of initial use. Research shows that topical vitamin-C offers photoprotective qualities.
Most individuals find the ideal time to apply vitamin-C is in the morning, because during the day you are more susceptible to sun exposure and L-ascorbic acid provides photoprotection from UVA/UVB radiation. You can also safely use it at night, as it stays in the skin for up to 72 hours, and cannot be washed off. Using our Vitamin C products once a day should be perfect for optimal results. Do not let the slight sting upon application scare you. The high acid levels are necessary in order for the Vitamin C to be absorbed. Other products with AHAs can still very safely be used alongside of our Vitamin C formulations, and will actually be greatly enhanced by the addition of these products.

Vitamin E-Tocopheryl Acetate- Natural Vitamin E Mixed Tocopherols is an active blend of natural mixed tocopherols containing naturally occurring d-alpha, d-beta, d-gamma and d-delta tocopherols. These are NATURAL tocopherols, they are NOT the synthetic, racemix dl-tocopherol or dl-tocopheryl acetate. 

Tocopherol is the most commonly used form of vitamin E in cosmetic products. α-tocopherol, one of four types of tocopherol, is the most abundant form of vitamin E naturally found in the skin. α and γ forms are excreted in sebum [oil] and act as a barrier for the skin. The amount of tocopherol in the skin decreases over time due to sun exposure. Tocopherols are strong anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants help protect against skin aging. Tocopherols use their anti-oxidant ability to protect against sun damage and repair sun damage. They increase collagen production and protect existing collagen by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] that degrades collagen. Mixed tocopherols have anti-inflammatory properties and accelerate wound healing.
 
Key benefits of Vitamin E Mixed Tocopherols in skin care:

Antioxidant [1-15]
Sun damage protection [2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 14, 15]
Sun damage repair [12]
Anti-inflammatory [2, 5, 10, 14]
Wound Healing Support [5]
Matrix Metalloproteinase [MMP] inhibitors [11]
Stimulate collagen production [5]
Reduces fine lines and wrinkles [3]

Anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; emollient. Linoleic acid at 71%. A natural Vitamin E oil obtained by vacuum distillation of vegetable fats. Great for preventing rancidity in cosmetics and it acts as an anti-oxidant in creams, lotions, baby products, cosmetics and more. Has long been associated with accelerated healing. Is used a lot in burn and scar medical therapy units to assist the skin in healing.
Recent studies have suggested that Vitamin E oil assists in maintaining a healthy heart and blood vessels. Suitable for food use and measures 7500 I.U./Oz.

White willow bark extract- has been used by many cultures to reduce pain and inflammation. It contains salicin, a natural form of salicylic acid known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Salicin can reduce signs of aging by reducing the appearance of pores, wrinkles, and pigmentation. It also softens and moisturizes the skin. Salicin contributes to white willow bark extract’s exfoliating and acne-reducing power. White willow bark extract also contains polyphenols that contribute anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. These can help protect against sun damage and premature aging when used with sunscreen. White willow bark extract is a natural alternative to salicylic acid that has additional properties to enhance skin health.
Key benefits of White Willow bark (salicin) in skin care:

Anti-inflammatory [3] [4] [6] [8]
Anti-oxidant [4] [7]
Anti-acne [5]
Anti-bacterial [7]
Anti-blackheads [5] [7]
Oil/sebum control [5]
Pore refinement [2] [3]
Sun damage repair [7]
Treat hyperpigmentation [2]
Exfoliating [5]
Moisturizing and hydration [1] [2]
Wrinkle tightener [2]
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles [2]
Stimulate HA production [1]
Matrix metalloproteinases [MMP] inhibitor [1]

 ALLANTOIN

National Center for Biotechnology Information, “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 204, allantoin.”
[2]          C. Thornfeldt, “Cosmeceuticals Containing Herbs: Fact, Fiction, and Future,” Dermatol. Surg., vol. 31, pp. 873–881, Mar. 2006.
[3]          L. C. Becker, W. F. Bergfeld, D. V. Belsito, C. D. Klaassen, J. G. Marks, R. C. Shank, T. J. Slaga, P. W. Snyder, and F. Alan Andersen, “Final report of the safety assessment of allantoin and its related complexes,” Int. J. Toxicol., vol. 29, no. 3 Suppl, p. 84S–97S, May 2010.
[4]          L. U. Araújo, A. Grabe-Guimarães, V. C. F. Mosqueira, C. M. Carneiro, and N. M. Silva-Barcellos, “Profile of wound healing process induced by allantoin,” Acta Cirúrgica Bras. Soc. Bras. Para Desenvolv. Pesqui. Em Cir., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 460–466, Oct. 2010.
[5]          D. M. Ashcroft, A. L. Po, H. C. Williams, and C. E. Griffiths, “Systematic review of comparative efficacy and tolerability of calcipotriol in treating chronic plaque psoriasis,” BMJ, vol. 320, no. 7240, pp. 963–967, Apr. 2000.
[6]          G. H. Willital and H. Heine, “Efficacy of Contractubex gel in the treatment of fresh scars after thoracic surgery in children and adolescents,” Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res., vol. 14, no. 5–6, pp. 193–202, 1994.
[7]          G. H. Willital and J. Simon, “Efficacy of early initiation of a gel containing extractum cepae, heparin, and allantoin for scar treatment: an observational, noninterventional study of daily practice,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 38–42, Jan. 2013.
[8]          W. S. Ho, S. Y. Ying, P. C. Chan, and H. H. Chan, “Use of onion extract, heparin, allantoin gel in prevention of scarring in chinese patients having laser removal of tattoos: a prospective randomized controlled trial,” Dermatol. Surg. Off. Publ. Am. Soc. Dermatol. Surg. Al, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 891–896, Jul. 2006.
[9]          P. S. Wadhams, J. Griffith, P. Nikravesh, and D. Chodosh, “Efficacy of a surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride solution for onychomycosis. Preliminary results of treatment with periodic debridement,” J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 124–130, Mar. 1999.
[10]        A. Moadab, K. F. Rupley, and P. Wadhams, “Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash,” J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc., vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 288–293, Jun. 2001.
[11]        C. G. White, F. S. Shinder, A. L. Shinder, and D. L. Dyer, “Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer,” J. Sch. Nurs. Off. Publ. Natl. Assoc. Sch. Nurses, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 258–265, Oct. 2001.
[12]        L. duBouchet, M. R. Spence, M. F. Rein, M. R. Danzig, and W. M. McCormack, “Multicenter comparison of clotrimazole vaginal tablets, oral metronidazole, and vaginal suppositories containing sulfanilamide, aminacrine hydrochloride, and allantoin in the treatment of symptomatic trichomoniasis,” Sex. Transm. Dis., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 156–160, Mar. 1997.
[13]        S. Veraldi, P. De Micheli, R. Schianchi, and L. Lunardon, “Treatment of pruritus in mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis with a topical non-steroidal agent,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 537–539, Jun. 2009.


ALPHA BISABOLOL

1]  Villegas LF, Marçalo A, Martin J, Fernández ID, Maldonado H, Vaisberg AJ, et al. [+]-epi-α-Bisbolol Is the Wound-Healing Principle of Peperomia galioides: Investigation of the in Vivo Wound-Healing Activity of Related Terpenoids. Journal of Natural Products. 2001;64[10]:1357-9.
[2]  MacLeish NF. Revision of Eremanthus [Compositae: Vernonieae]. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 1987:265-90.
[3]  Rocha N, Rios E, Carvalho A, Cerqueira G, Lopes AA, Leal L, et al. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of [−]-α-bisabolol in rodents. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol. 2011;384[6]:525-33.
[4]  CLARK A. Promoting Sustainability in the Value Chain of Natural Bisabolol, a Brazilian Rainforest Product. New York: Columbia University. 2011.
[5]  Paula A, Rodrigues P. Promoting Sustainability in the Value Chain of Natural. 2011.
[6]  Singh O, Khanam Z, Misra N, Srivastava MK. Chamomile [Matricaria chamomilla L.]: an overview. Pharmacognosy reviews. 2011;5[9]:82.
[7]  Srivastava JK, Pandey M, Gupta S. Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sciences. 2009;85[19–20]:663-9.
[8]  Rezaie A, Mohajeri D, Zarkhah A, Nazeri M. Comparative assessment of Matricaria chamomilla and zinc oxide on healing of experimental skin wounds on rats. Annals of Biological Research. 2012;3[1].
[9]  Fatima Ad, Modolo LV, Conegero Sanches AC, Porto RR. Wound healing agents: the role of natural and non-natural products in drug development. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry. 2008;8[9]:879-88.

BAOBAB OIL (ORGANIC)


[1] E. De Caluwé, K. Halamová, and P. Van Damme, “Adansonia digitata L. – A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology,” Afrika Focus, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 11-51, 2010.
[2] S.A. Desantis, “Skin care and Restoration Composition and Methods,” United States Patent Application Publication, December 2013.
[3] A.C. Dweck, “The role of natural ingredients in anti-ageing of the skin,”¬ Australian Society of Cosmetic Chemists Annual Congress, transcript, Hamilton Island, 2003.
[4] P. Engels, “Cosmetic Preparations with an Additive from the Baobab Tree,” United States Patent Application, pp. 1-28, December 2009.
[5] G.P.P. Kamatou, I. Vermaak, and A.M. Viljoen, “An updated review of Adansonia digitata: A commercially important African tree,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 77, issue 4, pp. 908– 919, October 2011.
[6] A. Samie and T. Nefefe, “Antifungal activities of essential oils from Southern African medicinal plants against five Fusarium species,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, issue 3, pp. 465-478, January 2012.
[7] A. Samie, T. Nefefe, M. Gundidza, V. Mmbengwa, M. Magwa, and M. S. Mtshali, “Antimicrobial activities and time kill profiles of five essential oils from Southern Africa against selected               bacterial and fungal organisms,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 6, issue 44, pp. 3086-3095, November 2012.
[8] Baobab, Adansonia digitata: Field Manual for Extension Workers and Farmers,” Southampton Centre   for Underutilised Crops, Practical Manual no. 4, 2006.
[9] I. Vermaak, G.P.P. Kamatou, B. Komane-Mofokeng, A.M. Viljoen, and K. Beckett, “African seed oils of commercial importance — Cosmetic applications,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 77, pp.920-933, 2011.
[10] S. Wren and A. Stucki, “Organic essential oils, indigenous cold pressed oils, herbs and spices in sub- Saharan Africa,” The International Journal of Aromatherapy, vol. 13, no. 2, 2003.
[11] N. Zimba, S. Wren, and A. Stucki, “Three major tree nut oils of southern central Africa: Their uses and future as commercial base oils,” The International Journal of Aromatherapy, vol. 15, pp. 177- 182, 2005. 

BOSWELLIA SERRATA

1. P. Calzavara-Pinton, C. Zane, E. Facchinetti, R. Capezzera, and A. Pedretti, “Topical Boswellic acids for treatment of photoaged skin,” Dermatologic Therapy, vol. 23, pp. 28- 32, 2010.
2. C. Dohling, “Boswellia serrata (Frankincense) – from Traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) to evidence-based medicine,” Phytomedicine, vol. 15, issues 6-7, pp. 540, June 2008.
3. M.T. Huang, V. Badmaev, Y. Ding, Y. Liu, J.G. Xie, and C.T. Ho, “Anti-tumor and anti- carcinogenic activities of triterpenoid, beta-boswellic acid,” Biofactors, vol. 13, issues 1-  4, pp. 225-230, 2000.
4. A. Mallik, D. Goupalea, H. Dhongadeb, and S. Nayak, “Evaluation of Boswellia Serrata oleo-gum resin for wound healing activity,” Der Pharmacia Lettre, vol. 2, issue 2, pp. 457-     463, 2010.
5. A. Pedretti, R. Capezzera, C. Zane, E. Facchinetti, and P. Calzavara-Pinton, “Effects of Topical Boswellic Acid on Photo and Age-Damaged Skin: Clinical, Biophysical, and Echographic Evaluations in a Double-Blind, Randomized, Split-Face Study,” PlantaMed, vol. 76, pp. 550-560, Nov. 2009.
6. M.Z. Siddiqui, “Boswellia Serrata, A Potential Antiinflammatory Agent: An Overview,”Indian J Pharm Sci. vol. 73, issue 3, pp. 255-261, June 2011.
7. S. Singha, A. Khajuriaa, S.C. Tanejaa, R.K. Johria, J. Singha, and G.N. Qazi, “Boswellic acids: A leukotriene inhibitor also effective through topical application in inflammatory disorders,” Pytomedicine, vol. 15, issues 6-7, pp. 400-407, June 2008.
8. S. Togni, G. Maramaldi, F. Di Pierro, and M. Biondi, “A cosmeceutical formulation based on boswellic acids for the treatment of erythematous eczema and psoriasis,” Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology, vol. 7, pp. 321–327, November 2014.
9. Q. Wang, X. Panxa, H.H. Wong, C.A. Wagner, L.J. Lahey, W.H. Robinson, and J. Sokolove, “Oral and topical boswellic acid attenuates mouse osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 22 , pp. 128-132, 2014.
10.  S. Weckessera, K. Engela, B. Simon-Haarhausa, A. Wittmerb, K. Pelzb, and C.M. Schempp. “Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance,” Phytomedicine, vol. 14, issues 7-8, pp. 508-516, August 2007.

CERAMIDES
[1]       Y. Uchida, “Ceramide signaling in mammalian epidermis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 1841, no. 3, pp. 453–462, Mar. 2014.
[2]       M. J. Choi and H. I. Maibach, “Role of ceramides in barrier function of healthy and diseased skin,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 215–223, 2005.
[3]       Y. Mizutani, S. Mitsutake, K. Tsuji, A. Kihara, and Y. Igarashi, “Ceramide biosynthesis in keratinocyte and its role in skin function,” Biochimie, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 784–790, Jun. 2009.
[4]       J. van Smeden, L. Hoppel, R. van der Heijden, T. Hankemeier, R. J. Vreeken, and J. A. Bouwstra, “LC/MS analysis of stratum corneum lipids: ceramide profiling and discovery,” J. Lipid Res., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1211–1221, Jun. 2011.
[5]       K.-M. Joo, G.-W. Nam, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Han, H.-J. Jeong, S.-Y. Lee, H. K. Kim, and K.-M. Lim, “Relationship between cutaneous barrier function and ceramide species in human stratum corneum,” J. Dermatol. Sci., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 47–50, Oct. 2010.
[6]       L. Kircik, F. Hougeir, and J. Bikowski, “Atopic dermatitis, and the role for a ceramide-dominant, physiologic lipid-based barrier repair emulsion,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1024–1027, Sep. 2013.
[7]     L. Coderch, O. López, A. de la Maza, and J. L. Parra, “Ceramides and skin function,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 107–129, 2003.
[8]       C. R. Harding, A. E. Moore, J. S. Rogers, H. Meldrum, A. E. Scott, and F. P. McGlone, “Dandruff: a condition characterized by decreased levels of intercellular lipids in scalp stratum corneum and impaired barrier function,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 294, no. 5, pp. 221–230, Jul. 2002.
[9]       A. M. Goldstein and W. Abramovits, “Ceramides and the stratum corneum: structure, function, and new methods to promote repair,” Int. J. Dermatol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 256–259, Apr. 2003.
[10]    J. Rogers, C. Harding, A. Mayo, J. Banks, and A. Rawlings, “Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 288, no. 12, pp. 765–770, Nov. 1996.
[11]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, M. Hattori, and N. Yoshizuka, “Selective recovery of deranged water-holding properties by stratum corneum lipids,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 758–761, Dec. 1986.
[12]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, Y. Minematsu, and M. Kawai, “Importance of intercellular lipids in water-retention properties of the stratum corneum: induction and recovery study of surfactant dry skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 281, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 1989.
[13]     M. Kucharekova, J. Schalkwijk, P. C. M. Van De Kerkhof, and P. G. M. Van De Valk, “Effect of a lipid-rich emollient containing ceramide 3 in experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 331–338, Jun. 2002.
[14]     K. Lintner, P. Mondon, F. Girard, and C. Gibaud, “The effect of a synthetic ceramide-2 on transepidermal water loss after stripping or sodium lauryl sulfate treatment: an in vivo study,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–26, Feb. 1997.
[15]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, A. Kawamata, S. Yano, and N. Takaishi, “Water-retaining function in the stratum corneum and its recovery properties by synthetic pseudoceramides,” J Soc Cosmet Chem, vol. 40, pp. 273–285, 1989.
[16]     L. Yang, M. Mao-Qiang, M. Taljebini, P. M. Elias, and K. R. Feingold, “Topical stratum corneum lipids accelerate barrier repair after tape stripping, solvent treatment and some but not all types of detergent treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol., vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 679–685, Nov. 1995.
[17]     K. De Paepe, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Repair of acetone- and sodium lauryl sulphate-damaged human skin barrier function using topically applied emulsions containing barrier lipids,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. JEADV, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 587–594, Nov. 2002.
[18]     M. de Pera, L. Coderch, J. Fonollosa, A. de la Maza, and J. L. Parra, “Effect of internal wool lipid liposomes on skin repair,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol., vol. 13, no. 3–4, pp. 188–195, Aug. 2000.
[19]     L. Coderch, M. De Pera, J. Fonollosa, A. De La Maza, and J. Parra, “Efficacy of stratum corneum lipid supplementation on human skin,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 139–146, Sep. 2002.
[20]     M. Man MQ, K. R. Feingold, C. R. Thornfeldt, and P. M. Elias, “Optimization of physiological lipid mixtures for barrier repair,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1096–1101, May 1996.
[21]     K. De Paepe, M. P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Incorporation of ceramide 3B in dermatocosmetic emulsions: effect on the transepidermal water loss of sodium lauryl sulphate-damaged skin,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. JEADV, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 272–279, Jul. 2000.
[22]     K. De Paepe, P. Vandamme, M. P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Body lotions enriched with skin identical lipids. A TEWL study of aged skin and SLS-induced scaly skin,” Euro Cosmet., vol. 7, pp. 38–45, 1999.
[23]     L. Rodrigues, P. A. da Silva, P. Pinto, N. Galego, N. Silva, and L. M. Pereira, “Identification of the in vivo topically applied ‘human-identical’ ceramides included in negatively charged liposomes,” Boll. Chim. Farm., vol. 137, no. 10, pp. 395–402, Nov. 1998.
[24]     S. L. Chamlin, J. Kao, I. J. Frieden, M. Y. Sheu, A. J. Fowler, J. W. Fluhr, M. L. Williams, and P. M. Elias, “Ceramide-dominant barrier repair lipids alleviate childhood atopic dermatitis: changes in barrier function provide a sensitive indicator of disease activity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 198–208, Aug. 2002.
[25]     J. L. Sugarman and L. C. Parish, “Efficacy of a lipid-based barrier repair formulation in moderate-to-severe pediatric atopic dermatitis,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1106–1111, Dec. 2009.
[26]     L. H. Kircik, J. Q. Del Rosso, and D. Aversa, “Evaluating Clinical Use of a Ceramide-dominant, Physiologic Lipid-based Topical Emulsion for Atopic Dermatitis,” J. Clin. Aesthetic Dermatol., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 34–40, Mar. 2011.
[27]     Z. D. Draelos, “The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration,” Cutis, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 87–91, Jan. 2008.
[28]     E. Berardesca, M. Barbareschi, S. Veraldi, and N. Pimpinelli, “Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 280–285, Nov. 2001.
[29]     E. M. Zettersten, R. Ghadially, K. R. Feingold, D. Crumrine, and P. M. Elias, “Optimal ratios of topical stratum corneum lipids improve barrier recovery in chronologically aged skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 37, no. 3 Pt 1, pp. 403–408, Sep. 1997.
[30]    S. Karahatay, K. Thomas, S. Koybasi, C. E. Senkal, S. Elojeimy, X. Liu, J. Bielawski, T. A. Day, M. B. Gillespie, D. Sinha, J. S. Norris, Y. A. Hannun, and B. Ogretmen, “Clinical relevance of ceramide metabolism in the pathogenesis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): attenuation of C(18)-ceramide in HNSCC tumors correlates with lymphovascular invasion and nodal metastasis,” Cancer Lett., vol. 256, no. 1, pp. 101–111, Oct. 2007.
[31]     H. Wakita, Y. Tokura, H. Yagi, K. Nishimura, F. Furukawa, and M. Takigawa, “Keratinocyte differentiation is induced by cell-permeant ceramides and its proliferation is promoted by sphingosine,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 286, no. 6, pp. 350–354, 1994.
[32]     E. P. M. Grist, “An evaluation of United Kingdom environmental bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk assessment,” Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 152–159, Apr. 2005.
[33]     Y. A. Hannun and L. M. Obeid, “The Ceramide-centric universe of lipid-mediated cell regulation: stress encounters of the lipid kind,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 277, no. 29, pp. 25847–25850, Jul. 2002.
[34]     C. C. Geilen, T. Wieder, and C. E. Orfanos, “Ceramide signalling: regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in human epidermis,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 289, no. 10, pp. 559–566, Sep. 1997.
[35]     Y. Uchida, W. M. Holleran, and P. M. Elias, “On the effects of topical synthetic pseudoceramides: comparison of possible keratinocyte toxicities provoked by the pseudoceramides, PC104 and BIO391, and natural ceramides,” J. Dermatol. Sci., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 37–43, Jul. 2008.

CHOLESTEROL NF

[1]  I. Hanukoglu,  "Steroidogenic enzymes: structure, function, and role in regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis.",  Journal of  Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , 43, pp: 779–804, 1992 
[2]  D.T. Downing, J.S. Strauss, P.E. Pochi , “Variability in the chemical composition of human skin surface lipids”, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, pp: 53-322, 1969 
[3]   L. Kircik, F. Hougeir, and J. Bikowski, “Atopic dermatitis, and the role for a ceramide-dominant, physiologic lipid-based barrier repair emulsion,” Journal of Drugs in Dermatology , 12, pp. 1024–1027, Sep 2013 
 [4[  L. Bauman, “Cosmetic Dermatology – Principles and Pactice”, second edition, ISBN: 978-0-07-164128-9 
[5]  J. Leyden, A. Rawlings, “Skin Moisturization”, pp214-221,CRC Press, ISBN: 13-978-0-8247-4413-7, 2002 
 [6]  M. Mao-Qiang, K. Feingold, C. Thornfeldt, P. Elias, “Optimization of physiological lipid mixtures for barrier repair”, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 106, pp 1096-1101,1996 
[7]  L. Yang, M. Mao-Qiang, M. Taljebini, C. Thornfeldt, P. Elias, K. Feingold, “Topical stratum corneum lipids accelerate barrier repair after tape stripping, solvent treatment and some but not all types of detergent treatment”, British Journal of Dermatology, 133, pp 679-685, 1995 
[8]  M. Loden, “Role of Topical Emollients and Moisturizers in the Treatment of Dry Skin Barrier Disorders:, American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 11, pp 771-788, 2003 
[9]  L. Coderch, M. De Pera, J. Fonollosa, A. De La Maza, J. Parra, “Efficacy of stratum corneum lipid supplementation on human skin”, Contact Dermatitis, 47, pp 139-146,2002 
[10]  G. Lykkesfeldt, H. Henrikyer, “Topical cholesterol treatment of recessive X-linked ichthyosis”, The Lancet,  322, pp 1337-1338, 1983 
[11]  G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, M. Hattori, and N. Yoshizuka, “Selective recovery of deranged water-holding properties by stratum corneum lipids,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 87, pp. 758–761, 1986 
 [12]  G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, Y. Minematsu, and M. Kawai, “Importance of intercellular lipids in water-retention properties of the stratum corneum: induction and recovery study of surfactant dry skin,” Archives of Dermatology Research,  281, pp. 45–51, 1989. 
[13]  J. Rogers, C. Harding, A. Mayo, J. Banks, and A. Rawlings, “Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons,” Archives of Dermatology Research, 288, pp. 765–770, 1996. 
[14]  A.V. Rawlings, “Advances in Dry Skin Stratum Corneum Biology and Moisturization”, Cosmetics and Toiletry”, 228, pp:42-52, 2003

CoQ10

[1]          G. P. Littarru and L. Tiano, “Bioenergetic and antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10: recent developments,” Mol. Biotechnol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 31–37, Sep. 2007.
[2]          J. Garrido-Maraver, M. D. Cordero, M. Oropesa-Ávila, A. Fernández Vega, M. de la Mata, A. Delgado Pavón, M. de Miguel, C. Pérez Calero, M. Villanueva Paz, D. Cotán, and J. A. Sánchez-Alcázar, “Coenzyme Q10 Therapy,” Mol. Syndromol., vol. 5, no. 3–4, pp. 187–197, Jul. 2014.
[3]          F. Brugè, E. Damiani, C. Puglia, A. Offerta, T. Armeni, G. P. Littarru, and L. Tiano, “Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded with CoQ10: effect on human dermal fibroblasts under normal and UVA-mediated oxidative conditions,” Int. J. Pharm., vol. 455, no. 1–2, pp. 348–356, Oct. 2013.
[4]          S. B. Lohan, S. Bauersachs, S. Ahlberg, N. Baisaeng, C. M. Keck, R. H. Müller, E. Witte, K. Wolk, S. Hackbarth, B. Röder, J. Lademann, and M. C. Meinke, “Ultra-small lipid nanoparticles promote the penetration of coenzyme Q10 in skin cells and counteract oxidative stress,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Off. J. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pharm. Verfahrenstechnik EV, Dec. 2014.
[5]          U. Hoppe, J. Bergemann, W. Diembeck, J. Ennen, S. Gohla, I. Harris, J. Jacob, J. Kielholz, W. Mei, D. Pollet, D. Schachtschabel, G. Sauermann, V. Schreiner, F. Stäb, and F. Steckel, “Coenzyme Q10, a cutaneous antioxidant and energizer,” BioFactors Oxf. Engl., vol. 9, no. 2–4, pp. 371–378, 1999.
[6]          E. Fasano, S. Serini, N. Mondella, S. Trombino, L. Celleno, P. Lanza, A. Cittadini, and G. Calviello, “Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Selected Natural Compounds Contained in a Dietary Supplement on Two Human Immortalized Keratinocyte Lines,” BioMed Res. Int., vol. 2014, pp. 1–11, 2014.
[7]          Y. Yue, H. Zhou, G. Liu, Y. Li, Z. Yan, and M. Duan, “The advantages of a novel CoQ10 delivery system in skin photo-protection,” Int. J. Pharm., vol. 392, no. 1–2, pp. 57–63, Jun. 2010.
[8]          K. Muta-Takada, T. Terada, H. Yamanishi, Y. Ashida, S. Inomata, T. Nishiyama, and S. Amano, “Coenzyme Q10 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death and enhances the synthesis of basement membrane components in dermal and epidermal cells,” BioFactors Oxf. Engl., vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 435–441, Oct. 2009.
[9]          S. Grether-Beck, A. Marini, T. Jaenicke, and J. Krutmann, “Effective Photoprotection of Human Skin against Infrared A Radiation by Topically Applied Antioxidants: Results from a Vehicle Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Study,” Photochem. Photobiol., vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 248–250, Jan. 2015.
[10]        M. Zhang, L. Dang, F. Guo, X. Wang, W. Zhao, and R. Zhao, “Coenzyme Q(10) enhances dermal elastin expression, inhibits IL-1α production and melanin synthesis in vitro,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 273–279, Jun. 2012.
[11]        M. Inui, M. Ooe, K. Fujii, H. Matsunaka, M. Yoshida, and M. Ichihashi, “Mechanisms of inhibitory effects of CoQ10 on UVB-induced wrinkle formation in vitro and in vivo,” BioFactors Oxf. Engl., vol. 32, no. 1–4, pp. 237–243, 2008.
[12]        B. Fuller, D. Smith, A. Howerton, and D. Kern, “Anti-inflammatory effects of CoQ10 and colorless carotenoids,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 30–38, Mar. 2006.
[13]        B. S. Choi, H. S. Song, H. R. Kim, T. W. Park, T. D. Kim, B. J. Cho, C. J. Kim, and S. S. Sim, “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on cutaneous healing in skin-incised mice,” Arch. Pharm. Res., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 907–913, Jun. 2009.
[14]        C. Rona, F. Vailati, and E. Berardesca, “The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2004.
[15]        K. Winkler-Stuck, F. R. Wiedemann, C.-W. Wallesch, and W. S. Kunz, “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on the mitochondrial function of skin fibroblasts from Parkinson patients,” J. Neurol. Sci., vol. 220, no. 1–2, pp. 41–48, May 2004.

DMAE

[1] B. Clares, M.A. Ruiz, M.E. Morales, J.A. Tamayo, and V. Gallardo Lara, “Structural  characterization and stability of dimethylaminoethanol and dimethylaminoethanol  bitartrate for possible use in cosmetic firming,” J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 61, 269–278, July   2010.
[2] A. Gragnani, F.B. Giannoccaro, C.S. Sobral, J.P. Franca, and L.M. Ferreira, “Dimethylaminoethanol Affects the Viability of Human Cultured Fibroblasts,” Aesth. Plast. Surg., vol. 31, pp. 711-718, 2007.
[3] R. Grossman, “The role of dimethylaminoethanol in clinical dermatology,” Am. J. Clin.  Dermatol., vol. 6, issue 1, pp. 39-47, 2005.
[4] K.E. Haenke, “Dimethylethanolamine [DMAE] and Selected Salts and Esters: Review of  Toxicological Literature,” pp. 1-131, November 2002.
[5] 5. G. Morissette, L. Germain, and F. Marceau, “The antiwrinkle effect of topical concentrated 2- dimethylaminoethanol involves a vacuolar cytopathology,” Br. J. Dermatol., vol. 156,     issue 3, pp. 433-439, March 2007.
[6] P.S. Prestes, R.B. Rigon, G.N. Guimaraes, M.L. Ozores Polacow, M.S. Mariani Pires-de- Campose, M. Chorilli, and G.R. Leonardi, “Development, physical-chemical stability and rheological behavior of silicones formulations containing Dimethylaminoethanol  [DMAE],” Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 3, no. 02, pp. 001-005, February 2013.
[7] B. Sommerfeld, “Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, split-face study on the clinical efficacy of Tricutan on skin firmness,” Phytomedicine, vol 14, issue 11, pp. 711-715, November 2007.
[8] K.A. Tadini and M. Campos, “In vivo skin effects of dimethylaminoethanol [DMAE] based formulation,” Pharmazie, vol. 64, pp. 818-822, 2009. 
[9] I. Uhoda, N. Faska, C. Robert, G. Cauwenbergh, and G.E. Pierard, “Split face study on the cutaneous tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol [deanol] gel,” Skin Research and Technology, vol. 8, pp. 164-167, 2002.

D-PANTHENOL

[1]    L. Baumann, “Cosmeceutical Critique Compendium”, Skin and allergy news, 2006
[2]    G.S. Kelly, “Pantothenic Acid”, Alternative Medicine Review, 16, pp 263-274, 2001
[3]    D.L. Bissett, “Common cosmeceuticals”, Clinics in Dermatology, 27, pp 435–445, 2009
[4]    F .B. Camargo, Jr., L.R. Gaspar, P.B.G. Maia Campos, “Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations”, Journal of Cosmetic Science, no 62,  pp 361–369, 2011
[5]    E. Proksch, H.P. Nissen, “Dexpanthenol enhances skin barrier repair and reduces inflammation after sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritation”,  Journal of dermatology treatments, 13, pp 173-178, 2002
[6]    W. Gehring, M. Gloor, “Effect of topically applied dexpanthenol on epidermal barrier function and stratum corneum hydration. Results of a human in vivo study”, Arzneimittel-Forschung,  50, pp 659-663, 2002
[7]    F. Ebner, A. Heller, F. Rippke, I. Tausch, “Topical use of dexpanthenol in skin disorders”, American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 3, pp 427-433, 2002
[8]     R. Heise, C. Skazik, Y. Marquardt,  K. Czaja,  K. Sebastian, P. Kurschat, L. Gan,  B. Denecke, S. Ekanayake-Bohlig, K.-P. Wilhelm, H.F. Merk, J.M. Baron, “Dexpanthenol Modulates Gene Expression in Skin Wound Healing in vivo”, Skin Pharmacology and Phisiology, 25, pp 241-248, 2012
[9]    K.Biro, D. ThaÇi, F. R. Ochsendorf, R. Kaufmann, W.H. Boehncke, “Efficacy of dexpanthenol in skin protection against irritation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study”, Contact Dermatitis, 9, pp 80-84, 2003
[10]    M. Udompataikul, D. Limpa-o-Vart, “Comparative trial of 5% dexpanthenol in water-in-oil formulation with 1% hydrocortisone ointment in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis: a pilot study”, Journal of Drugs in Dermatology”, 11, pp 366-374, 2012
[11]    W.Baschong, D. Huglind, J. Roding, “D-panthenol loaded nanotopes<TM> providing enhanced anti-inflammatory efficacy: A study on human volunteers”, Seifen Öle Fette Wachse, 125: pp. 29-30
[12]    H.D.Tauschel,C.Rudolph, “Untersuchungen zur perkutanen Wirksamkeit einer Heparin-Allantoin-Dexpanthenol-Kombination in spezieller Salbengrundlage: Antiinflammatorische Wirkung auf UV-Erytheme am Meerschweinchen”, Arzneimittel Forschung, 32, pp. 1096-1100, 1982
[13]    H.L. Leung,“Pantothenic acid defciency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris”, Med Hypotheses, 44:490-492. 1995
[14]     R. Romiti, N.Romiti, “Dexpanthenol cream signi!cantly improves mucocutaneous side effects associated with isotretinoin therapy”,  Pediatric Dermatology, 19:368, 2002   
[15]    N.V. Gaidash, E.A. Karassyov, V.V. Mordortseva, “Personal experience in the use of dexpanthol for skin care after chemical peeling and photo-rejuvenation procedures”, Journal of Applied Cosmetology, 27, pp 111-115, 2009


FFERULIC ACID

[1]          C. Mancuso and R. Santangelo, “Ferulic acid: pharmacological and toxicological aspects,” Food Chem. Toxicol. Int. J. Publ. Br. Ind. Biol. Res. Assoc., vol. 65, pp. 185–195, Mar. 2014.
[2]          A. Saija, A. Tomaino, R. L. Cascio, D. Trombetta, A. Proteggente, A. De Pasquale, N. Uccella, and F. Bonina, “Ferulic and caffeic acids as potential protective agents against photooxidative skin damage,” J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 476–480, Mar. 1999.
[3]          E. Graf, “Antioxidant potential of ferulic acid,” Free Radic. Biol. Med., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 435–448, Oct. 1992.
[4]          A. Saija, A. Tomaino, D. Trombetta, A. De Pasquale, N. Uccella, T. Barbuzzi, D. Paolino, and F. Bonina, “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of caffeic and ferulic acids as topical photoprotective agents,” Int. J. Pharm., vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 39–47, Apr. 2000.
[5]          F.-H. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, R. D. Gupta, J. A. Tournas, J. A. Burch, M. A. Selim, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. M. Grichnik, J. Zielinski, and S. R. Pinnell, “Ferulic Acid Stabilizes a Solution of Vitamins C and E and Doubles its Photoprotection of Skin,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 826–832, Oct. 2005.
[6]          T. Pluemsamran, T. Onkoksoong, and U. Panich, “Caffeic acid and ferulic acid inhibit UVA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 through regulation of antioxidant defense system in keratinocyte HaCaT cells,” Photochem. Photobiol., vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 961–968, Aug. 2012.
[7]          Y. Wu, X. Zheng, X.-G. Xu, Y.-H. Li, B. Wang, X.-H. Gao, H.-D. Chen, M. Yatskayer, and C. Oresajo, “Protective effects of a topical antioxidant complex containing vitamins C and E and ferulic acid against ultraviolet irradiation-induced photodamage in Chinese women,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 464–468, Apr. 2013.
[8]          C. Oresajo, T. Stephens, P. D. Hino, R. M. Law, M. Yatskayer, P. Foltis, S. Pillai, and S. R. Pinnell, “Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 290–297, Dec. 2008.
[9]          J. C. Murray, J. A. Burch, R. D. Streilein, M. A. Iannacchione, R. P. Hall, and S. R. Pinnell, “A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 418–425, Sep. 2008.
[10]        E. M. Burns, K. L. Tober, J. A. Riggenbach, D. F. Kusewitt, G. S. Young, and T. M. Oberyszyn, “Differential effects of topical vitamin E and C E Ferulic® treatments on ultraviolet light B-induced cutaneous tumor development in Skh-1 mice,” PloS One, vol. 8, no. 5, p. e63809, 2013.
[11]        J.-Y. Lin, J. A. Tournas, J. A. Burch, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, and J. Zielinski, “Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin,” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 61–66, Apr. 2008.
[12]        J. A. Tournas, F.-H. Lin, J. A. Burch, M. A. Selim, N. A. Monteiro-Riviere, J. E. Zielinski, and S. R. Pinnell, “Ubiquinone, Idebenone, and Kinetin Provide Ineffective Photoprotection to Skin when Compared to a Topical Antioxidant Combination of Vitamins C and E with Ferulic Acid,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 1185–1187, Mar. 2006.
[13]        D.-W. Cho, D.-E. Kim, D.-H. Lee, K.-H. Jung, B.-S. Hurh, O. W. Kwon, and S. Y. Kim, “Metabolite profiling of enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented forms of Opuntia ficus-indica and their effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging,” Arch. Pharm. Res., vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1159–1168, Sep. 2014.
[14]        V. Staniforth, W.-C. Huang, K. Aravindaram, and N.-S. Yang, “Ferulic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinases in mouse skin via posttranslational mechanisms,” J. Nutr. Biochem., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 443–451, May 2012.
[15]        M. Ichihashi, Y. Funasaka, A. Ohashi, A. Chacraborty, N. U. Ahmed, M. Ueda, and T. Osawa, “The inhibitory effect of DL-alpha-tocopheryl ferulate in lecithin on melanogenesis,” Anticancer Res., vol. 19, no. 5A, pp. 3769–3774, Oct. 1999.

GOTU KOLA

[1]          B. S. Shetty, S. L. Udupa, A. L. Udupa, and S. N. Somayaji, “Effect of Centella asiatica L (Umbelliferae) on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing in Wistar Albino rats,” Int. J. Low. Extrem. Wounds, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 137–143, Sep. 2006.
[2]          W. Bylka, P. Znajdek-Awiżeń, E. Studzińska-Sroka, A. Dańczak-Pazdrowska, and M. Brzezińska, “Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview,” Phytother. Res. PTR, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1117–1124, Aug. 2014.
[3]          W. Bylka, P. Znajdek-Awiżeń, E. Studzińska-Sroka, and M. Brzezińska, “Centella asiatica in cosmetology,” Adv. Dermatol. Allergol. Dermatol. Alergol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 46–49, Feb. 2013.
[4]          Sunilkumar, S. Parameshwaraiah, and H. G. Shivakumar, “Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats,” Indian J. Exp. Biol., vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 569–572, Jun. 1998.
[5]          A. Shukla, A. M. Rasik, G. K. Jain, R. Shankar, D. K. Kulshrestha, and B. N. Dhawan, “In vitro and in vivo wound healing activity of asiaticoside isolated from Centella asiatica,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 1–11, Apr. 1999.
[6]          V. Paocharoen, “The efficacy and side effects of oral Centella asiatica extract for wound healing promotion in diabetic wound patients,” J. Med. Assoc. Thail. Chotmaihet Thangphaet, vol. 93 Suppl 7, pp. S166–170, Dec. 2010.
[7]          P. Hashim, “The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast,” Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 233–237, Mar. 2014.
[8]          A. Shukla, A. M. Rasik, and B. N. Dhawan, “Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds,” Phytother. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 1999.
[9]          G. Maramaldi, S. Togni, F. Franceschi, and E. Lati, “Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (CentevitaTM),” Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol., vol. 7, pp. 1–9, 2013.
[10]        E. Jung, J.-A. Lee, S. Shin, K.-B. Roh, J.-H. Kim, and D. Park, “Madecassoside inhibits melanin synthesis by blocking ultraviolet-induced inflammation,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 15724–15736, 2013.
[11]        W. Klövekorn, A. Tepe, and U. Danesch, “A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, half-side comparison with a herbal ointment containing Mahonia aquifolium, Viola tricolor and Centella asiatica for the treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis,” Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 583–591, Nov. 2007.
[12]        Z. D. Draelos, M. H. Gold, M. Kaur, B. Olayinka, S. L. Grundy, E. J. Pappert, and B. Hardas, “Evaluation of an onion extract, Centella asiatica, and hyaluronic acid cream in the appearance of striae rubra,” Skinmed, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 80–86, Apr. 2010.
[13]        J. Á. García Hernández, D. Madera González, M. Padilla Castillo, and T. Figueras Falcón, “Use of a specific anti-stretch mark cream for preventing or reducing the severity of striae gravidarum. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 233–237, Jun. 2013.
[14]        M. Haftek, S. Mac-Mary, M.-A. L. Bitoux, P. Creidi, S. Seité, A. Rougier, and P. Humbert, “Clinical, biometric and structural evaluation of the long-term effects of a topical treatment with ascorbic acid and madecassoside in photoaged human skin,” Exp. Dermatol., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 946–952, 2008

GREEN TEA

[1]          S. Hsu, “Green tea and the skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1049–1059, Jun. 2005.
[2]          N. Pazyar, A. Feily, and A. Kazerouni, “Green tea in dermatology,” Skinmed, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 352–355, Dec. 2012.
[3]          P. OyetakinWhite, H. Tribout, and E. Baron, “Protective mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in skin,” Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev., vol. 2012, p. 560682, 2012.
[4]          C. A. Elmets, D. Singh, K. Tubesing, M. Matsui, S. Katiyar, and H. Mukhtar, “Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 425–432, Mar. 2001.
[5]          S.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Kim, S.-B. Kwon, E.-S. Park, C.-H. Huh, S.-W. Youn, S.-W. Kim, and K.-C. Park, “Protective effects of EGCG on UVB-induced damage in living skin equivalents,” Arch. Pharm. Res., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 784–790, Jul. 2005.
[6]          Y.-C. Kim, S.-Y. Choi, and E.-Y. Park, “Anti-melanogenic effect of black, green, and white tea extracts in immortalized melanocytes,” J. Vet. Sci., Jan. 2015.
[7]          S. Scalia, N. Marchetti, and A. Bianchi, “Comparative evaluation of different co-antioxidants on the photochemical- and functional-stability of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in topical creams exposed to simulated sunlight,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 574–587, 2013.
[8]          E. A. Yapar, O. Ynal, and M. S. Erdal, “Design and in vivo evaluation of emulgel formulations including green tea extract and rose oil,” Acta Pharm. Zagreb Croat., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 531–544, Dec. 2013.
[9]          M. D. Gianeti, D. G. Mercurio, and P. M. B. G. Maia Campos, “The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient,” Dermatol. Ther., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 267–271, May 2013.
[10]        T. Mahmood and N. Akhtar, “Combined topical application of lotus and green tea improves facial skin surface parameters,” Rejuvenation Res., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 91–97, Apr. 2013.
[11]        K. O. Lee, S. N. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Anti-wrinkle Effects of Water Extracts of Teas in Hairless Mouse,” Toxicol. Res., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 283–289, Dec. 2014.
[12]        T. Mahmood, N. Akhtar, and C. Moldovan, “A comparison of the effects of topical green tea and lotus on facial sebum control in healthy humans,” Hippokratia, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 64–67, Jan. 2013.
[13]        J. Y. Yoon, H. H. Kwon, S. U. Min, D. M. Thiboutot, and D. H. Suh, “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 429–440, Feb. 2013.
[14]        J. Jeon, J. H. Kim, C. K. Lee, C. H. Oh, and H. J. Song, “The Antimicrobial Activity of (-)-Epigallocatehin-3-Gallate and Green Tea Extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Isolated from Skin Wounds,” Ann. Dermatol., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 564–569, Oct. 2014.
[15]        J. Steinmann, J. Buer, T. Pietschmann, and E. Steinmann, “Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea,” Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 1059–1073, Mar. 2013.
[16]        A. Gharib, Z. Faezizadeh, and M. Godarzee, “Therapeutic efficacy of epigallocatechin gallate-loaded nanoliposomes against burn wound infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Skin Pharmacol. Physiol., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 68–75, 2013.
[17]        H.-L. Kim, J.-H. Lee, B. J. Kwon, M. H. Lee, D.-W. Han, S.-H. Hyon, and J.-C. Park, “Promotion of full-thickness wound healing using epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate/poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) membrane as temporary wound dressing,” Artif. Organs, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 411–417, May 2014.
[18]        S.-A. Chen, H.-M. Chen, Y.-D. Yao, C.-F. Hung, C.-S. Tu, and Y.-J. Liang, “Topical treatment with anti-oxidants and Au nanoparticles promote healing of diabetic wound through receptor for advance glycation end-products,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. Off. J. Eur. Fed. Pharm. Sci., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 875–883, Dec. 2012.
[19]        D. S. Domingo, M. M. Camouse, A. H. Hsia, M. Matsui, D. Maes, N. L. Ward, K. D. Cooper, and E. D. Baron, “Anti-angiogenic effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human skin,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 705–709, 2010.
[20]        O. S. Kwon, J. H. Han, H. G. Yoo, J. H. Chung, K. H. Cho, H. C. Eun, and K. H. Kim, “Human hair growth enhancement in vitro by green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG),” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 14, no. 7–8, pp. 551–555, Aug. 2007.
[21]        Y. Y. Kim, S. Up No, M. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, H. Kang, H. O. Kim, and Y. M. Park, “Effects of topical application of EGCG on testosterone-induced hair loss in a mouse model,” Exp. Dermatol., vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1015–1017, Dec. 2011

L-CARNOSINE

[1]          A. A. Boldyrev, S. C. Gallant, and G. T. Sukhich, “Carnosine, the protective, anti-aging peptide,” Biosci. Rep., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 581–587, Dec. 1999.
[2]          C. Renner, N. Zemitzsch, B. Fuchs, K. D. Geiger, M. Hermes, J. Hengstler, R. Gebhardt, J. Meixensberger, and F. Gaunitz, “Carnosine retards tumor growth in vivo in an NIH3T3-HER2/neu mouse model,” Mol. Cancer, vol. 9, p. 2, 2010.
[3]          E. Emanuele, J. M. Spencer, and M. Braun, “An experimental double-blind irradiation study of a novel topical product (TPF 50) compared to other topical products with DNA repair enzymes, antioxidants, and growth factors with sunscreens: implications for preventing skin aging and cancer,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 309–314, Mar. 2014.
[4]          E. Emanuele, M. Bertona, F. Sanchis-Gomar, H. Pareja-Galeano, and A. Lucia, “Protective effect of trehalose-loaded liposomes against UVB-induced photodamage in human keratinocytes,” Biomed. Rep., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 755–759, Sep. 2014.
[5]          M. Y. Kim, E. J. Kim, Y.-N. Kim, C. Choi, and B.-H. Lee, “Effects of α-lipoic acid and L-carnosine supplementation on antioxidant activities and lipid profiles in rats,” Nutr. Res. Pract., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 421–428, Oct. 2011.
[6]          M. A. Babizhayev, “Biological activities of the natural imidazole-containing peptidomimetics n-acetylcarnosine, carcinine and L-carnosine in ophthalmic and skin care products,” Life Sci., vol. 78, no. 20, pp. 2343–2357, Apr. 2006.
[7]          M. A. Babizhayev, A. I. Deyev, E. L. Savel’yeva, V. Z. Lankin, and Y. E. Yegorov, “Skin beautification with oral non-hydrolized versions of carnosine and carcinine: Effective therapeutic management and cosmetic skincare solutions against oxidative glycation and free-radical production as a causal mechanism of diabetic complications and skin aging,” J. Dermatol. Treat., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 345–384, Oct. 2012.
[8]          G. de C. Dieamant, M. D. C. Velazquez Pereda, S. Eberlin, C. Nogueira, R. M. Werka, and M. L. de S. Queiroz, “Neuroimmunomodulatory compound for sensitive skin care: in vitro and clinical assessment,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 112–119, Jun. 2008.
[9]          V. P. Reddy, M. R. Garrett, G. Perry, and M. A. Smith, “Carnosine: a versatile antioxidant and antiglycating agent,” Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. SAGE KE, vol. 2005, no. 18, p. pe12, May 2005.
[10]        C. Rona, F. Vailati, and E. Berardesca, “The cosmetic treatment of wrinkles,” J. Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 26–34, Jan. 2004.
[11]        Q. Wessels, E. Pretorius, C. M. Smith, and H. Nel, “The potential of a niacinamide dominated cosmeceutical formulation on fibroblast activity and wound healing in vitro,” Int. Wound J., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 152–158, Apr. 2014.
[12]        I. Ansurudeen, V. G. Sunkari, J. Grünler, V. Peters, C. P. Schmitt, S.-B. Catrina, K. Brismar, and E. A. Forsberg, “Carnosine enhances diabetic wound healing in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes,” Amino Acids, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 127–134, Jul. 2012.
[13]        A. Federici, G. Federici, and M. Milani, “An urea, arginine and carnosine based cream (Ureadin Rx Db ISDIN) shows greater efficacy in the treatment of severe xerosis of the feet in Type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with glycerol-based emollient cream. A randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial,” BMC Dermatol., vol. 12, p. 16, 2012.
[14]        G. Ciammaichella, G. Belcaro, M. Dugall, M. Hosoi, R. Luzzi, E. Ippolito, and M. R. Cesarone, “Product evaluation of Ureadin Rx Db (ISDIN) for prevention and treatment of mild-to-moderate xerosis of the foot in diabetic patients. Prevention of skin lesions due to microangiopathy,” Panminerva Med., vol. 54, no. 1 Suppl 4, pp. 35–42, Dec. 2012.

NIACINAMIDE

[1]  D.L. Bissett, “Common cosmeceuticals,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 27, pp. 435–445, 2009.
[2]  D.L. Bissett, “Topical Niacinamide and Barrier Enhancement,” Proctor and Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. pp. 8-12.
[3]  D.L. Bissett, L.R. Robinson, P.S. Raleigh, K. Miyamoto, T. Hakozaki, J. Li, and G.R. Kelm, “Reduction  in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation by topical N-acetyl glucosamine,” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, vol. 6, pp. 20–26, 2007.
[4]  D. Draelos, K. Ertel, and C. Berge, “Niacinamide-Containing Facial Moisturizer Improves Skin Barrier and Benefits Subjects With Rosacea,” Therapeutics for the Clinician, vol. 76, pp. 135-141, August   2005.
[5]  W. Gehring, “Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin,” Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, vol. 3, pp.88–93, 2004.
[6]  F. Iraji and L. Banan, “The efficacy of nicotinamide gel 4% as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of  cutaneous erosions of pemphigus vulgaris,” Dermatologic Therapy, vol. 23, pp. 308–311, 2010.
[7]  B. Kimball, J.R. Kaczvinsky, J. Li, L.R. Robinson, P.J. Matts, C.A. Berge, K. Miyamoto, and D.L. Bissett, “Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double- blind, vehicle-controlled trial,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 162, pp 435–441, 2010.
[8]  J. Navarrete-Solis, J.P. Castanedo-Cazares, B. Torres-Alvarez, C. Oros-Ovalle, C. Fuentes-Ahumada, F.J. Gonzalez, J.D. Martınez-Ramırez, and B. Moncada, “A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of   Niacinamide 4% versus Hydroquinone 4% in the Treatment of Melasma,” Dermatology Research and Practice, 1-5, 2011.
[9]  R. Osborne, L. A. Mullins, and L. R. Robinson, “Topical N-Acetyl Glucosamine and Niacinamide Increase Hyaluronan,” The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio USA.
[10]  N. Otte, C. Borelli, and H.C. Korting, “Nicotinamide – biologic actions of an emerging cosmetic ingredient,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 27, pp. 255–261, 2005.
[11]  A.R. Shalita, J.G. Smith, L.C. PARISH, M.S. Sofman, and D.K. Chalker, “Topical Nicotinamide Compared with Clindamycin Gel in the Treatment of Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 434-437, June 1995.
[12]  Y. Soma, M. Kashima, A. Imaizumi, H. Takahama, T. Kawakami, and M. Mizoguchi, “Moisturizing effects of topical nicotinamide on atopic dry skin,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 44, pp. 197–202, 2005.
[13]  B.C. Thompson, D. Surjana, G.M. Halliday, and D.L. Damian, “Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in primary melanocytes,” Experimental Dermatology,     vol. 23, pp. 509–528, 2014.

 

OAT BETA GLUCAN

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[2] Manners D.J., Masson A.J., Patterson J.C. The heterogeneity of glucan preparations from the walls of various yeasts. J. Gen. Microbiol. 1974;80:411–417.
[3] β-glucan, (2013), In Oats and Health, Retrieved May 2, 2015, from http://www.oatsandhealth.org/composition-oats-and-health-27/beta-glucan-oats-and-health-38
 [4] Goodridge H.S., Wolf A.J., Underhill D.M. β-Glucan Recognition by the Innate Immune System. Immunol. Rev. 2009;230:38–50.
[5] Pillai, R., M. Redmond, and J. Roding. 'Anti-Wrinkle Therapy: Significant New Findings In The Non-Invasive Cosmetic Treatment Of Skin Wrinkles With Beta-Glucan'. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 27.5 (2005): 292-292. Web.
[6] United States FDA, Federal Register, 68 (2003) 35346-35348
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[9] Wei, D., Zhang, L., Williams, D.L., and Browder, I.W., Glucan stimulates human dermal fibroblast collagen biosynthesis through a nuclear factor-1 dependent mechanism, Wound Repair and Regeneration, 10 (2002) 161-168
[10] Portera, C.A., Love, E.J., Memore, L., Zhang, L., Mueller, A., Browder, W., and Williams, D.L., Effect of macrophage stimulation on collagen biosynthesis in the healing wound, Am. Surg., 63 (1997) 125-131.
[11] Berdal M., Hege I., Appelborn B. S., Jorunn H., Eikren B. S., Lund A., Zykova S., Busend, R. Seljelid L.-T., Jensen T. (2007). Aminated β-1,3-glucan improves wound healing in diabetic db/db mice. Wound Rep Reg 15: 825-832
[12] Ber L. (1997). Yeast-derived β-1,3-glucan: an adjuvant concept. Am J Natural Med 4: 21-24 [13] Takahashi T., Yamazaki Y., Kato K. (1978). β-1,3-derivatives. US Patent 4,075,405
[14] Patchen M. L., D’Alesandro M. M., Brook I., Blakely W. F., MacVittie M. J. (1987). Glucan: mechanisms involved in its “radioprotective” effect. J Leuc Biol 42: 95-105

ROSEHIP SEED OIL

[1] C. Chrubasik, B.D. Roufogalis, U. Müller-Ladner, and S. Chrubasik, “A Systematic Review on the Rosa canina Effect and Efficacy Profiles,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, pp. 725–733, 2008.
[2] I. Çınar and A.S. Çolakoğlu, “Potential Health Benefits of Rose Hip Products,” Acta Hort. [ISHS], vol. 690, pp. 253-258, 2005.
[3] J. Concha, C. Soto, R. Chamy, and M.E. Zúñiga, “Effect of Rosehip Extraction Process on Oil and Defatted Meal Physicochemical Properties,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 83, no. 9, 2006.
[4] A.C. Dweck, “The role of natural ingredients in anti-ageing of the skin,”­ Australian Society of Cosmetic Chemists Annual Congress, transcript, Hamilton Island, 2003.
[5] B. A. Hopkins, “Rosehip Oil — Rosa Affinis Rubiginosa,” http://mettamassagetherapy.com/reprints/rosehip_oil.pdf
[6] F. Lattanzioa, E. Grecob, D. Carrettaa, R. Cervellati, P. Govonic, and E. Speroni, “In vivo anti- inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, pp. 880– 885, 2011.
[7] R. Nowak, “Fatty Acids Composition in Fruit of Wild Rose Species,” ACTA Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 229-235, 2005.
[8] I. Roman, A. Stănilă, and S. Stănilă, “Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Rosa canina L. biotypes from spontaneous flora of Transylvania,” Chemistry Central Journal, vol. 7, issue 73, pp.1-10, 2013.
[9] A. Saha and S. Sher, “Acne Treatment,” United States Patent Application, pp. 1-6, June 2011.
[10] M. Shakibaei, D. Allaway, S. Nebrich, and A. Mobasheri, “Botanical Extracts fromRosehip [Rosa canina], Willow Bark [Salix alba], and Nettle Leaf [Urtica dioica] Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, pp. 1-16, 2012.
[11] E.M. Wenzig, U. Widowitz, O. Kunert, S. Chrubasik, F. Bucar, E. Knauder, and R. Bauer, “Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of two rose hip [Rosa canina   L.] preparations,” Phytomedicine, vol. 15, pp. 826-835, 2008.
[14] Pareja, B., Kehl, H., Contribución a la Identificación de los Principios Activos en el Aceite de Rosa aff. rubigonosa, Anales de la Real Academia de Farmacia, 56, 283 (1990).

SAFFLOWER OIL

[1]  M. Athar and S.M. Nasir, “Taxonomic perspective of plant species yielding vegetable oils used in cosmetics and skin care products,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 36- 44, January 2005.
[2]  D. Banov, F. Banov, A.S. Bassani, “Case Series: The Effectiveness of Fatty Acids from Pracaxi Oil in a Topical Silicone Base for Scar and Wound Therapy,” Dermatol. Ther. [Heidelb], vol. 4, pp. 259- 269, 2014.
[3]  H. Bohles, M.A. Bieber, and W.C. Heird, “Reversal of experimental essential fatty acid deficiency by cutaneous administration of safflower oil,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 29, pp. 398-401, April 1976.
[4]  B. Cosge, B. Gurbuz, and M. Kiralan, “Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Safflower [Carthamus tinctorius L.] Varieties Sown in Spring and Winter,” International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences, vol. 1, issue 3, pp. 1-15, 2007.
[5]  L. Dajue and H.H. Mundel, “Safflower. Carthamus tinctorius L.,” Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. vol. 7. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, pp. 1-83, 1996.
[6]  A. Donato-Trancosoa, L. Goncalves, A. Monte-Alto-Costa, F. de Assis da Silvac, and B. Romana-Souza,  “Seed oil of Joannesia princeps improves cutaneous wound closure in experimental mice,” Acta Histochemica, vol. 116, pp. 1169-1177, 2014.
[7]  R.L. Goldemberg and C.P. De La Rosa, “Correlation of Skin Feel Emollients to Their Chemical Structure,”  J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem., vol. 22, pp. 635-654, September 1971.
[8]  D.F. Horrobin and B.M. DPhil, “Essential fatty acids in clinical dermatology,” Journal of the American  Academy of Dermatology,” vol. 20, num. 6, pp. 1045-1053, June 1989.
[9]  D.G. Miller, S.K. Williams, J.D. Palombo, R.E. Griffin, B.R. Bistrian, and G.L. Blackburn, “Cutaneous  application of safflower oil in preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in patients on home
 parenteral nutrition,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 46, pp. 419-423, 1987.
[10]  J.S. Roh, J.Y. Han, J.H. Kim, and J.K. Hwang, “Inhibitory Effects of Active Compounds Isolated from Safflower [Carthamus tinctorius L.] Seeds for Melanogenesis,” Biol. Pharm. Bull., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1976-1978, 2004.

SALICYLIC ACID
[1]  R. Amann and B.A. Peskar, “Anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate,” Eur J Pharmacol., vol. 447, issue 1, pp. 1-9, June 2002.
[2]  L. Bauman, Cosmetic Dermatology: Principles and Practice, second edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009. 
[3]  C.L. Carroll, J. Clarke, F. Camacho, R. Balkrishnan, and S.R. Feldman, “Topical Tacrolimus Ointment Combined With 6% Salicylic Acid Gel for Plaque Psoriasis Treatment,” Arch.Dermatol., vol.141, number 1, pp. 43-46, January 2005.
[4]  Z.D. Draelos, “Examining Over-the-Counter Acne Treatments,” Cosmetic Dermatology, vol.22, no. 7, pp. 344-348, July 2009.
[5]  E.S. Highfield and K.J. Kemper, “White Willow Bark [Salix alba],” The Longwood Herbal Task Force and The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research, pp. 1-12, July 1999.
[6]  D. Kligman “Technologies for cutaneous exfoliation using salicylic acid,” Dermatologic Therapy, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 225-227, September 2001.
[7  D. Kligman and A.M. Kligman, “Salicylic Acid Peels for the Treatment of Photoaging,”  Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 24, issue 3, pp. 325-328, March 1998.
[8]  A. Kornhauser, S.G. Coelho, and V.G. Hearing, “Applications of hydroxy acids: classification, mechanisms, and photoactivity,” Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol., vol. 3, pp. 135-142, 2010.
[9]  H.S. Lee and I.H. Kim, “Salicylic acid peels for the treatment of acne vulgaris in Asian  patients,” Dermatol Surg., vol. 12, pp. 1196-1199, December 2003.
[10]  S. Quinta, P.C. Pinto, and L.M. Rodrigues, “Short-Term Impact of Low Concentration Salicylic Acid on the Cleansing Care of Normal Healthy Skin,” Journal of Applied Cosmetology, vol. 19, pp.37-50, April 2001.

SCLEROTIUM GUM

Bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au, (2015). Mycology - Structure and Function - Sclerotia and Stromata. [online] Available at: http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/Mycology/StructureFunction/sclerotiaStromata.shtml#sclerotium [Accessed 7 Dec. 2015].
Staudt, C., Horn, H., Hempel, D. and Neu, T. (2004). Volumetric measurements of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substance glycoconjugates in biofilms. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 88(5), pp.585-592.
 Donlan, R. (2002). Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8(9), pp.881-890.
Morris, G. and Harding, S. (2009). Microbial Polysaccharides. 1st ed. [ebook] Sutton Bonington: Elsevier Inc, pp.482-494. Available at: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/ncmh/harding_pdfs/Paper322.pdf [Accessed 7 Dec. 2015].
Grassi, M. (1996). A study of the rheological behavior of scleroglucan weak gel systems. Carbohydrate Polymers, 29(2), pp.169-181.
Survase, S.A. et al. (2007).Fermentative Production of Scleroglucan, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 45 (2) 107–118
Brigand,G. (1993).Scleroglucan. Industrial Gums. Academic Press, New York, USA pp. 461–472.
Vinarta, S., Francois, N., Figueroa, L. and Farina, J. (2007). Sclerotium rolfsii scleroglucan: the promising behavior of a natural polysaccharide as a drug delivery vehicle, suspension stabilizer and emulsifier. Int J Biol Macromol., 41(3), pp.314-23.
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Du B., Bian Z., and Xu B., (2014). Skin Health Promotion Effects of Natural Beta-Glucan Derived from Cereals and Microorganisms: A Review. Phytother. Res.28(2). pp. 159–166
Maia Campos, P., de Melo, M. and de Camargo Junior, F. (2014). Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Formulations on Human Skin. Polysaccharides, pp.1-18.

SILYMARIN
[1]        Dennis J. McKenna, Kenneth Jones, Kerry Hfughes, Sheila Humphrey,” Botanical Medicines: The Desk Reference for Major Herbal Supplements”, Second edition, ISBN 0-7890-1265-0, pp 765-809
[2]        Vladimir Kren, Daniela Walterova,”Sylibin and Sylimarin – new effects and applications” Biomed. Papers 149(1), 29–41 (2005)
[3]        World Health Organization, “Monographs on selected medicinal plants”, part 2, pp 300-316, 1999[4]        Ajit Kiran Kaur, A.K.Wahi, Brijesh Kumar, Anil Bhandari, Neelkant Prasad, “Milk Thistle (Silybum Marianum): A review”, International Journal of Pharma. Research & Development, ISSN:0974-9446, 2011
[5]        Kevin P. Anthony,  Mahmoud A. Saleh, “Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Silymarin Components”, Antioxidants, 2, 398-407; doi:10.3390/antiox20403, ISSN:2076-3921, 2013
[6]        G. Ramakrishnan, L. Lo Muzio, C. M. Elinos-Báez, S. Jagan, T. A. Augustine, S. Kamaraj,P. Anandakumar, T. Devaki, “Silymarin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in hepatic cancer cells”, Cell Proliferation, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2184.2008.00581.x, pp  229–240, 2009
[7]        P.Ferenci, B.Dragosics, H.Dittrich, H.Frank, L.Brenda, H.Lochs, S.Meryn, W.Base, B.Schneider, “Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver”, Journal of Hepatology, vol.9, pp.105-113, July 1989[8]        Khunnala A, Narongchai S, Butkrachang S, Leelarungrayub D, Narongchai P, “Anti-Oxidative Stress Activities of Silibinin on alpha-Amanitin In Vitro”, Thai Journal of Toxicology, 24(2): 106-112, 2009
[9]        Chi-feng Hung, Yin-ku Lin, Li-wen Zhang, Ching-hsien Chang, Jia-you Fang, “Topical delivery of silymarin constituents via the skin route”, Acta Pharmacologica Sinica” pp 118–126; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.186, 2010
[10]      Palma Feher, Miklos Vecsernyes, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Judit Varadi, Timea Kiss, Zoltan Ujhelyi, Katalin Nagy, Ildiko Bacskay, “ Topical application of Sylibum Marianum Extract” , Jurnal Medical Aradean (Arad Medical Journal) Vol. XIV, issue 2, pp. 5-8, 2011
[11]      Alena Svobodova, Jitka Psotova, Daniela Walterova, “Natural phenolics in the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. A Review”,  Biomed. Papers 147(2), 137–145, 2003
[12]      Santosh K. Katiyar, Neil J. Korman, Hasan Mukhtar, Rajesh Agarwal, “Protective Effects of Silymarin Against Photocarcinogenesis in a Mouse Skin Model”, Journal National Cancer Institute, pp 556-565, 1997
[13]      Rana P. Singh, Anil K Tyagi, Jifu Zhao, Rajesh Agarwal, “Silymarin inhibits growth and causes regression of established skin tumors in SENCAR mice via modulation of mitogen activated protein kinases and induction of apoptosis”, Carcinogenesis, vol.23, pp. 499-510, 2003[14]      Moushumi Lahiri-Chatterjee, Santos K. Katiyar, Rajiv R. Mohan, Rajesh Agarwal, “A Flavonoid Antioxidant, Silymarin, Affords Exceptionally High Protection against Tumor Promotion in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Model” Cancer Ressearch, pp 499-510  1999  
[15]      E.Berardesca, N.Cameli, C.Cavallotti, J.L. Levy, G. Pierard, G. de Paoli Ambrosi, “Combined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation”, Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2008.00355.x, pp 8-14, 2008
[16]      Tagreed Altaei, “The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream”, BMC Dermatology 201, pp 12-18, 2012[17]      Shadi Mehraban, Amir Feily, “Silymarin in Dermatology: A Brief Review”, PigmentaryDdisorders,Volume 1, Issue 4,  doi:1000125, 2014
[18]      Haidar Hamid Al-Anbari, Ahmed Salih Sahib, Ahmed R. Abu Raghif, " Effects of silymarin, N-acetylcysteine and selenium in the treatment of papulopustular acne”, Oxidants and Antioxidants in medical science, doi: 10.5455, 2012
[19]      Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani , Yasaman Emami, Elmira Esmaeilzadeh, Fereshteh Bagheri, Mohammad Reza Namazi , Marzieh Keshtkar, Mahsima Khoshneviszadeh, Ali Noorafshan, “Silymarin enhanced fibroblast proliferation and tissue regeneration in full thickness skin wounds in rat models; a stereological study”, Journal of the Saudi Society of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery, pp 7–12 , 2012
[20]      A. Oryan, A. Tabatabaei Naeini,A. Moshiri,A. Mohammadalipour,M.R. Tabandeh, “Modulation of cutaneous wound healing by silymarin in rats”, Journal of Wound Care, vol 21, no 4649, 2012

SQUALANE

[1] C.B. Fox, “Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery,” Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 3286- 3312, 2009.
[2] S. Guibert, M. Batteau, P. Jame, and T. Kuhn, “Detection of Squalene and Squalane Origin with Flash Elemental Analyzer and Delta V Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer,” Thermo Scientific                Application Note 30276, 2013.
[3] Z.R. Huang, Y.K. Lin, and J.Y. Fang, “Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related  Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology,” Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 540-554, 2009.
[4] S. Kato, H. Taira, H. Aoshima, Y. Saitoh, and N. Miwa, “Clinical evaluation of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane for anti-wrinkle cosmetics,” J Nanosci Nanotechnol., vol. 10, issue 10, pp. 6769-74, October 2010.
[5] G.S. Kelly, “Squalene and its potential clinical uses,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 29-36, 1999.
[6] S.K. Kim and F. Karadeniz, “Biological Importance and Applications of Squalene and Squalane,” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, volume 65, chapter 14, pp. 223-232, 2012.
[7] Y. Kohno, Y. Egawa, S. Itoh, S. Nagaoka, M. Takahashi, and K. Mukai, “Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squalene in n-butanol,”                Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1256, pp. 52-56, 1995.
[8] Y.K. Lin, S.A. Al-Suwayeh, Y.L. Leu, F.M. Shen, and J.Y. Fang, “Squalene-Containing Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Promote Percutaneous Absorption and Hair Follicle Targeting of Diphencyprone for Treating Alopecia Areata,” Pharm Res, vol. 30, pp. 435–446, 2013.
[9] E. Makrantonaki, R. Ganceviciene, and C. Zouboulis, “An update on the role of the sebaceous gland in the pathogenesis of acne,” Dermato-Endocrinology, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 41-49; January 2011.
[10] R. W. Owen, W. Mier, A. Giacosa, W. E. Hull, B. Spiegelhalder, and H. Bartsch, “Phenolic compounds and squalene in olive oils: the concentration and antioxidant potential of total phenols, simple phenols, secoiridoids, lignans and squalene,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, pp. 647-659, 2000.
[11] H. Relas, H. Gylling, R.A. Rajaratnam, and T.A. Miettinen, “Postprandial Retinyl Palmitate and Squalene Metabolism Is Age Dependent,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 55, issue 11, pp. 515-       521, 2000.
[12] L.T.S. Tjan, “Squalene for Skin Care,” Science for Life, 2001-2011.
[13] P. Viola and M. Viola, “Virgin olive oil as a fundamental nutritional component and skin protector” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 159-165, March 2009.
[14] C. C. Zouboulis and A. Boschnakow, “Chronological ageing and photoageing of the human sebaceous gland,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 26, pp. 600-607, 2001

WHITE WILLOW BARK

[1]  R. Gopaul, H.E. Knaggs, and J.F. Lephart, “Salicin regulates the expression of functional ‘youth gene clusters’ to reflect a more youthful gene expression profile,” International  Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 33, pp. 416-420, 2011.
[2]  R. Gopaul, H.E. Knaggs, J.F. Lephart, K.C. Holley, and E.M. Gibson, “An evaluation of the   effect of a topical product containing salicin on the visible signs of human skin aging,”  J.Cosmet. Dermatol., vol. 9, issue 3, pp. 196-201, September 2010.
[3]  E.S. Highfield and K.J. Kemper, “White Willow Bark [Salix alba],” The Longwood Herbal Task   Force and The Center for Holistic Pediatric Education and Research, pp. 1-12, July 1999.
[4]  M.T. Khayyal, M.A. El-Ghazalyb, D.M. Abdallaha, S.N. Okpanyic, O. Kelberc, and D. Weiser,  “Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of a standardized willow bark extract,” Arzneimittelforschung Drug Research, vol. 55, issue 11, pp.677-687, 2005.
[5]  L.L. Levy and J.L. Emer, “Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review,” Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol., vol. 5, pp. 173-182, 2012.
[6]  “Willow Bark,” Information about Herbs, Botanicals, and Other Products, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Integrative Medicine.
[7]  A. Svobodová, J. Psotová, and D. Walterová, “Natural Phenolics in the Prevention of UV- induced Skin Damage: A Review,” Biomed. Papers, vol. 147, issue 2, pp. 137–145, 2003.
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